Comparison of FS.COM S3900 Series Gigabit Ethernet Switch

Gigabit Ethernet switch is an essential part of communication systems. It is widely used as the access layer switch, which facilitates the connection of end node devices to the network. The Gigabit Ethernet switches on the market mainly differ in port and function. Then which to choose from so many options of Gigabit switches on the market? FS newly launched the S3900 series Gigabit Ethernet switch. It is designed with an advanced feature set that brings high availability, comprehensive security, robust multicast control, and advance QoS to the network edge, while maintaining simple management. Let’s know more about the S3900 series Gigabit Ethernet switch.

FS.COM S3900 Series Gigabit Ethernet Switch Introduction

FS.COM S3900 series Gigabit Ethernet switch is advanced layer 2 plus (layer 3 Lite) Gigabit managed stackable switch with 10G uplinks, which can satisfy the demand for the future network upgrade. The S3900 series switches are the ideal Gigabit access and aggregation switch for SMB, enterprise, and campus networks. The S3900 series of switches are equipped with 24/48 ports, copper/SFP ports. All of S3900 series switches are managed stackable switches. The most distinctive characters of the S3900 series switch are listed below.

Performance and Scalability

FS.COM S3900 series Gigabit Ethernet switch has the switching capacity up to 128Gbps/176Gbps. It delivers wire-speed switching performance on all Gigabit ports and takes full advantage of existing high-performance Gigabit CPEs, PCs, 11n/ac Wi-Fi applications, etc. Besides, it significantly improves the responsiveness of applications and shortens file transfer time. Moreover, the 4 built-in 10G SFP+ ports provide uplink flexibility, and create 10 Gbps high-speed uplinks to 10 GbE switch or device through the connection of 10G SFP+ transceivers or 10G SFP+ DACs, thus reduce bottlenecks and increase the performance of the access network. Except for the 10G uplinks, S3900 stackable switches also have the potentiality of adding extra available ports in the future. Besides, the stackable switches which are stacked together can be managed as an entity, thus save the time and energy when you manage the stackable switches.

Reliability and Energy Efficiency

The design of the S3900 series incorporates high energy efficiency which can greatly expand your network capacity with much less power. The fanless design of S3900-24T4S ensures noiseless operation without disturbing your family or your staff and increases the reliability of the system. The S3900 series switch is an eco-friendly solution for your family and business network.

Robust Multicast Control

The S3900 switch is equipped with IGMP snooping technique which prevents the flooding of multicast traffic. The multicast traffic is forwarded to only those ports associated with an IP multicast receiver. Thus the technique reduces unnecessary load on host devices.

Superior Management

With industry-standard command-line interface (CLI) program, which is accessed through the console port or telnet, the S3900 series Gigabit switch provides superior management user experience. Besides, user-friendly web interface helps users to quickly and simply configure switches.

Continuous Availability

FS.COM S3900 series switch contains STP protocols. IEEE 802.1w rapid spanning tree protocol provides a loop-free network and redundant links. IEEE 802.1s multiple spanning tree protocol runs STP per VLAN base, providing layer 2 load sharing on redundant links up to 64 instances. The STP protocols prevent bridge loops and the broadcast radiation and also allow a network design to include backup links to provide fault tolerance if an active link fails.

Comparison of FS.COM S3900 Series Gigabit Ethernet Switch

The following chart shows the details of the three types S3900 Gigabit Ethernet switch. You can choose from them according to your actual needs.

Switch Type
S3900-24T4S
S3900-24F4S
S3900-48T4S
Ports
24 10/100/1000BASE-T, 4 SFP+ uplinks
24 SFP with 4 combo SFP, 4 SFP+ uplinks
48 10/100/1000BASE-T, 4 SFP+ uplinks
Switch Class
Layer 2+ (Layer 3 Lite)
Layer 2+ (Layer 3 Lite)
Layer 2+ (Layer 3 Lite)
MAC Address Table
16K
16K
16K
Jumbo Frames
9KB
9KB
9KB
Flash Memory
64MB
64MB
64MB
Stacking
Yes
Yes
Yes
Switch Chip
BCM56150
BCM56151
BCM56150
Switching Capacity
128Gbps
128Gbps
176Gbps
Forwarding Rate
95Mpps
95Mpps
130Mpps
Input Power
100-240V AC, 50/60 Hz
100-240V AC, 50/60 Hz
100-240V AC, 50/60 Hz
Max Power Consumption
21W
43W
45W
With Fan or Fanless
Fanless
With Fan
With Fan
Price
US$ 279
US$ 399
US$ 409

Which to Choose Among S3900 Series Gigabit Ethernet Switch?

When it comes to choosing from FS.COM S3900 Gigabit Ethernet switch, you need to consider the number and type of ports you need and whether the switch is fanless or with fans.

What are the Port Type and Port Number You Need?

FS.COM S3900 series Gigabit Ethernet switches offer three different port combination options. You can choose from them according to your network demands.

If you need 24 port Gigabit switch, both S3900-24T4S switch with 24 10/100/1000BASE-T ports and S3900-24F4S switch with 24 SFP ports are within the scope of consideration. Then which to choose between S3900-24T4S switch and S3900-24F4S switch? It depends on your need. If cost, backward compatibility with legacy copper cabling networks, power consumption are important for you, S3900-24T4S switch with 24 10/100/1000BASE-T ports is the better choice. If you prefer lower latency and switches with combo SFP ports then you could consider S3900-24F4S switch with 24 SFP ports which contain 4 combo ports. To make it clear, a combo port is both a copper port and an SFP port sharing the same switching fabric and ID but connect to different transmission media. The two ports can’t be at the same time. When either of the two ports is enabled, the other port is automatically disabled. It gives users the options and flexibility to configure their switch for their unique application requirements.

Besides, the S3900-24T4S switch with copper ports is connected with Ethernet cables with the transmission distance of no more than 100m. While the S3900-24F4S switch with SFP ports is connected with SFP fiber optic transceiver modules & fiber patch cables with the transmission distance of 550m to 150km. So, S3900-24F4S switch is more suitable for long distance transmission, while S3900-24T4S switch is more suitable for short distance transmission.

If the network devices you are going to connect are of large amount, and you have a relatively big network, then you need to choose a switch with more than 24 ports. The S3900-48T4S switch with 48 10/100/1000BASE-T ports can satisfy your demand. It has the switching capacity of 176Gbps, which is the largest among the S3900 series switches.

Fanless Switch or Switch With Fan?

If you are planning to use the switch in quiet space, like offices, home, shops, libraries, hospitals or clinics where noise can be an issue, FS.COM S3900-24T4S fanless switch is recommended. Fanless switches are equipped with a passive cooling system, which has the advantage of energy efficiency and lower financial cost. The switches with fans are mostly deployed in data centers which have separate data center rooms. While fanless switches are more suitable for small business, people working at home, and places where silence is needed.

FS.COM S3900-24T4S fanless Gigabit Ethernet switch

Figure 1: FS.COM S3900-24T4S fanless Gigabit Ethernet switch

Summary

FS.COM S3900 Series Gigabit Ethernet switch has high availability, comprehensive security, robust multicast control, and advanced QoS. The article extensively discussed why you choose the S3900 series and how to choose the most suited switch for your network among the S3900 series. If you want to purchase FS.COM S3900 series Gigabit Ethernet switches or other network switch such as 10GbE switch, 40GbE switch and 100GbE switch, please contact us at sales@fs.com.

SFP vs RJ45 vs GBIC: When to Choose Which?

SFP, RJ45, and GBIC transceiver modules are three main kinds of 1GbE transceiver modules on the market. You may be puzzled by so many choices of transceiver modules. Don’t worry about it. This article will help you clarify the differences among SFP vs RJ45 vs GBIC transceivers and give you some suggestions about how to choose from them.

What Is an SFP Transceiver?

Short for small form-factor pluggable, an SFP module is a kind of fiber optic transceiver module with LC duplex interface. It supports the transmission data rate of 1GbE. SFP optical transceivers can operate on single mode or multimode fiber patch cables. The transmission distance of SFP modules ranges from 550m to 150km.

Figure1: SFP transceiver module

What Is an RJ45 Transceiver?

SFP copper RJ45 transceiver is a kind of transceiver with copper RJ45 interface. SFP copper RJ45 transceiver modules can support the transmission data rate of 1GbE. They are often used with Cat5 cables. SFP copper RJ45 transceivers are popular to be used for short distance transmission, because the overall cost of the copper network is lower compared with the optical network.

RJ45 sfp vs rj45 vs gbic

Figure2: SFP copper RJ45 transceiver module

What Is a GBIC Transceiver?

Gigabit interface converter (GBIC), is a kind of hot pluggable fiber optic transceiver module. With the data rate of 1GbE, GBIC transceiver modules can transmit data through the distance of 550m to 80km. A GBIC module supports the same data rate with an SFP module, but a GBIC transceiver module has twice the size of an SFP transceiver module.

GBIC sfp vs rj45 vs gbic

Figure3: GBIC transceiver module

SFP vs RJ45 vs GBIC: What’s the Difference?

After getting a general idea about what are SFP, RJ45, and GBIC transceivers, we will talk about the differences among them. The following chart shows the differences among SFP vs RJ45 vs GBIC transceiver modules from 4 aspects.

Transceiver module
SFP
SFP copper RJ45
GBIC
Interface
LC duplex
RJ45
SC duplex
Transmission distance
550m~150km
100m
550m~80km
Cable type
SMF/MMF
Cat 5
SMF/MMF
Data rate
1000Mbps
1000Mbps
1000Mbps

SFP vs RJ45 vs GBIC: When to Choose Which?

As is shown in the chart, SFP, SFP copper RJ45, and GBIC transceiver modules are all used in 1Gbit data transmission. Then when to choose which for the 1GbE network?

When to Choose SFP Transceivers?

Compared with GBIC transceiver modules, SFP modules have a smaller size. So SFP modules allow having more interfaces on a line card or a switch. Besides, SFP transceivers can support the transmission distance much longer than SFP copper RJ45 transceivers and GBIC transceivers. So if you require long transmission distance,  SFP transceivers can meet your need. Last but not least, If you already have a line card or a switch with empty SFP slots, then you need to adapt to that.

When to Choose SFP Copper RJ45 Transceivers?

When your budget is not enough to use SFP transceivers, you can choose SFP copper RJ45 transceivers for short-distance transmission. If you have the requirement of long-distance transmission afterward, you can use SFP to RJ45 slot media converters. For they can provide an economical path to extend the distance of an existing network with fiber cabling.

When to Choose GBIC Transceivers?

If you already have a line card or a switch with unoccupied GBIC slots, then you need to choose GBIC transceivers to make full use of the empty slots on your switch. In fact, GBIC transceiver modules are gradually replaced by SFP modules on the market. For SFP transceivers are regarded as the upgraded version of GBIC modules.

Summary

The differences among SFP vs RJ45 vs GBIC transceiver modules include the interface type, transmission distance, and cable type. Your choice among them depends on different situations. If you want to buy Cisco SFP modules or other transceiver modules with high quality and low cost, please contact us at sales@fs.com.

Switch Definition In Networking Explained

When it comes to networking technology, we won’t miss Ethernet switches. Because it is an essential part of networking communication. Connecting devices, such as computers, routers, and servers, together on a network, it enables current to be turned on and off and selects a channel for data transmission. Then you may ask, what is the switch definition in networking? What are the types of switches in networking? How to choose a switch for my network? Now, this passage will give you the answers and suggestions.

What Is the Switch Definition In Networking

There is one question that confuses many people: what is a switch in networking? A switch, in the switch definition of networking, is a high-speed network equipment used to connect devices together on a network and enable the data transmission between different devices. It receives incoming data packets and redirects them to their destination on a local area network (LAN).

In a local area network (LAN) using Ethernet, a network switch determines where to send each incoming message frame according to the physical device address. This kind of address is also known as the Media Access Control address or MAC address. If a switch needs to forward a frame to a MAC address that is unknown by the switch, then the frame is flooded to all ports in the switching domain. Generally speaking, a data switch can create an electronic tunnel between the source and the destination ports that no other traffic can enter for a short time.

Switch Definition In Networking: Types of Switches In Networking

The Ethernet switch is an essential part of any network. Generally speaking, the Ethernet switch can be classified into two categories: the modular switch and the fixed switch.

Modular Switch

The modular switch has expansion ability and high flexibility. Modular switch makes it possible for you to add expansion modules as needed into the switches. It is much more complex than fixed switch, so it costs more than fixed switch.

Fixed Switch

The fixed switch isn’t expandable and has a fixed number of ports. Although it has less flexibility, it offers a lower entry cost. There are mainly three types of fixed switches in networking. They are the unmanaged switch, the smart switch, and the managed switch.

Unmanaged Switch

The unmanaged switch is often used in home networks, small business offices or shops. It can’t be managed, so we can’t enable or disable interfaces of it. Although it doesn’t provide security features, it can offer enough support if you use it in a small network of fewer than 5-10 computers.

Smart Switch

The smart switch is mainly used for business applications such as smaller networks and VoIP. It is suitable for small VLANs, VoIP phones, and labs. Smart switch can let you configure ports and set up virtual networks, but doesn’t have the ability to allow troubleshooting, monitoring, remote-accessing to manage network issues.

Managed Switch

The managed switch is widely used in data centers and enterprise networks. It provides control, high-levels of network security, and management. It’s ideal for remote-access control capabilities and off-site round-the-clock monitoring. The managed switches can improve a network’s resource utilization and speed. Although it costs the most, it worth the investment for a long run.

Switch Definition In Networking: types of fixed switches

How to Choose a Switch For Your Network?

When you choose a switch for your network, you need to consider several factors at the same time. These factors include the number of ports, transmission speed, and stackable vs standalone.

Number of Ports

Most of the switches on the market have 4 to 48ports. You need to consider the number of ports you’ll need according to the number of users and devices and devices your network supports. The larger your organization is, the more ports you’ll need. Considering the possible expansion of your network and the possible increase of your user amount, you need to prepare extra ports for a long term plan.

Speed

There are various switches with different speed, such as Gigabit Ethernet switch and 10GbE switch used at the edge of the network, as well as 40GbE switch and 100GbE switch used in the network core layers. When you determine the speed, the key factor to consider is the need of your network users and future growth. Such as how large are the volumes of the transferring data and whether do you require faster link.

Stackable vs Standalone

Will your network grow larger? If your answer is yes, then you may choose a stackable switch. Standalone switches need to be configured individually, and troubleshooting also needs to be handled on an individual basis. While stackable switches allow for multiple switches to be configured as one entity. With this advantage, you can save time and energy when you manage on the stackable switches. Here I want to recommend you FS.COM S3800 switches, which are stackable switches. The following video is a tutorial about how to stack switches using S3800 switches.

Summary

In the above passage, we’ve explained how people define switch in networking and analyze the types of switches. Besides, this article offers some suggestions about how to choose a switch for your network. I believe that you have got a general idea about switch definition in networking. If you need a little more help and advice with switch definition in networking, then please do not hesitate to let us know. For purchasing high-quality switch with low cost or for more products’ information, please contact us at sales@fs.com.

 

A Brief Introduction to Cisco Single-Mode SFP Modules

Introduction

Small form-factor pluggable (SFP) module is a hot-pluggable interface transceiver which links switches and routers to network. These small, modular optical interface transceivers offer a convenient and cost effective solution for the adoption of Gigabit Ethernet and Fibre Channel in data center. Cisco’s industry-standard SFPs can be used and interchanged on a wide variety of Cisco products and can be intermixed in combinations of IEEE 802.3z compliant 1000BaseSX, 1000BaseLX/LH, or 1000BaseZX interfaces on a port-by-port basis. Cisco SFP modules are commonly available in several different types: 1000BASE-T, 1000BASE-SX, 1000BASE-LX/LH, 1000BASE-EX, 1000BASE-ZX, and 1000BASE-BX-D/U. This post will give an introduction to Cisco single-mode SFP modules.

Cisco 1G single-mode SFP

Cisco 1G Single-Mode SFP Modules

Cisco 1G single-mode SFP modules consist of 1000BASE-LX/LH, 1000BASE-EX, 1000BASE-ZX, 1000BASE-BX-U, 1000BASE-BX-D, GLC-BX40-D-I, GLC-BX40-DA-I, GLC-BX40-U-I, GLC-BX80-D-I, and GLC-BX80-U-I. The 1000BASE-LX/LH SFP is compatible with the IEEE 802.3z 1000BASE-LX standard, functions on single-mode fiber-optic link and its transmission range can cover 550 m to 10 km on any multimode fibers. 1000BASE-EX SFP functions on standard single-mode fiber-optic link with spanning up to 40 km in length. 1000BASE-ZX SFP functions on standard single-mode fiber-optic link and its transmission range reaches approximately 70 km in length.

The 1000BASE-BX-D and 1000BASE-BX-U SFPs which are compatible with the IEEE 802.3ah 1000BASE-BX10-D and 1000BASE-BX10-U standards function on a single strand of standard SMF (Single-Mode Fiber) and its operating transmission range covers up to 10 km. The Cisco GLC-BX40-D-I, GLC-BX40-DA-I, and GLC-BX40-U-I SFPs also operate on a single strand of standard SMF and its transmission range can reach 40 km. A GLC-BX80-D-I and GLC-BX80-U-I device function on a single strand of standard SMF with an operating transmission range up to 80 km.

Another difference between these SFP modules is the transmission direction: 1000BASE-LX/LH, 1000BASE-EX and 1000BASE-ZX’ transmission is duplex while 1000BASE-BX-U, 1000BASE-BX-D, GLC-BX40-D-I, GLC-BX40-DA-I, GLC-BX40-U-I, GLC-BX80-D-I, and GLC-BX80-U-I’s transmission is simplex. One thing they have in common is that all these Cisco single-mode SFP modules adopt LC interfaces and Cisco SFP 1G transceivers can transmit optical signals through simplex or duplex LC patch cable.

Transmission of a Single Strand of SMF

Features and Benefits

Cisco single-mode SFP modules feature a variety of different types of modules supporting different transmission ranges and direction, and they are also compatible with products of other categories. The hot-swappable input/output device directly plugs into an Ethernet SFP port of a Cisco switch, which maximizes uptime and simplifies serviceability when installing or replacing. The robust design enhances capability and the small factor features great density per chassis. Its flexibility of media and interface choice on a port-by-port basis bring you convenience. “Pay as you Populate” model lowers initial costs. It can support digital optical monitoring (DOM) capability for strong diagnostic capabilities. Cisco quality identification (ID) feature enables a Cisco platform to identify whether the module is certified and tested by Cisco and it can be interoperable with other IEEE-compliant 1000BASE interfaces where applicable.

Conclusion

This post briefly introduces Cisco single-mode SFP modules, covering its definition, types of these SFPs and introduction of each type, and features and benefits of Cisco single-mode SFP modules. Now there are a number of modules for you to choose, but be sure to find the right one based just on your needs and at the same time take a few factors into consideration.

Classification Guide to Fiber Optical Module

Owing to the rapid progresses made in fiber optical technology, more and more networking infrastructure installations and upgrades choose fiber optic links for high-data-rate transmission. There is no question that compared with copper solutions, fiber optics provides greater bandwidth, more reliable data transmission, and immunity to electromagnetic interference and radio-frequency interference (EMI/RFI), crosstalk, impedance problems, and more. For constituting such fiber optic links, fiber optic module, one of the fast-growing transmission components, are instrumental, and work well in these applications where high-bandwidth and long-distance transmission are needed.

Along with the fiber optical technology advances, fiber optic module has been constantly designed and reinnovated, so as to better facilitate electrical-optical-electrical signal conversion. They are classified into several categories according to different standards regarding package, transmission mode, data rate and power supply. This text will talk about every classification standard in details.

Based-on Different Package Standard

MSAs (Multi-Source Agreements) are agreements between multiple manufacturers, system integrators, and suppliers, specifying parameters for system components and their guideline values, such as the electrical and optical interfaces, mechanical dimensions and electro-magnetic values. The equipment vendors follow these MSA defined values for designing their systems to ensure interoperability between interface modules. The form-factor or the MSA-type is needed so that the transceiver can mechanically and electrically fit into a given switch, router, etc. Transceiver MSAs define mechanical form factors including electric interface as well as power consumption and cable connector types. There are various MSA types: SFP (eg. E1MG-TX), SFP+, QSFP and so on.

fiber optical modules

By Transmission Mode Standard

When talking about this standard, single mode optical modules and multi-mode optical modules come to the central point.

  • Single Mode Fiber Optic Module

Single-mode optical modules, or single-mode transceivers, just as their name show, are designed to work over single mode fibers (SMFs). Compared with multimode fiber (MMF), SMF fiber core is smaller and the wavelength of the laser is narrower, meaning that while transmitting optical signals, SMF is able to deliver higher bandwidth at the much longer distances, like 2km, 10km, 40km, 60km, 80km and 120km transmission. Commonly-seen single-mode transceiver types include 10GBASE-LR, 1000BASE-LR, 1000BASE-BX, etc..

  • Multimode Fiber Optic Module

Multimode optical modules, or multimode transceivers, operate over MMF which uses a much bigger core and usually uses a longer wavelength of light. Thus, the optics used in MMF has a higher capability to gather light from the laser, for short distance transmission, with distance reach ranging from 100m to 500m. 10GBASE-SR is one of the most widely-used multi-mode transceiver types, such as AFBR-703SDZ-IN2. This Avago Intel compatible 10GBASE-SR SFP+ transceiver listed in FS.COM works over MMF with 850nm laser light for 300m distance reach.

AFBR-703SDZ-IN2, 10GBASE-SR SFP+ fiber optic module

According to Data Rate & Power Supply Standard
  • The connection between two network devices is realized with the help of protocols. It is imperative to know which protocol and data rate the switch or router supports. There are various protocols such as Ethernet, Fiber Channel (FC), InfiniBand, SONET/SDH, CPRI and so on. Each of these protocols supports their own data rates. For example Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) can range from 1Gb/s to 100Gb/s, while FC ranges from 1GFC (1.0625Gb/s) to 16GFC (14.025Gb/s).
  • As for power supply, there are built-in switching power transceiver and eternal power supply transceiver. The built-in switching power transceiver is designed for the carrier grade power. It supports equipment power protection, filters, and a wide power supply voltage regulator, reducing the external point of failure arising from the mechanical contact. By contrast,the external power supply transceiver is made for multi-use civilian equipment, and it is compact and cheap.
  • Of course, the classification standards of fiber optic module is not limited to those three points mentioned above. Other standards are also workable, such as the network management standard. It’s known that there are managed optical modules and unmanaged optical modules. The former type allows additional network monitoring with fault detection, free from configuration function. By contrast, the latter, without monitoring function, allows automatic communication of the devices that are connected to unmanaged optical modules.
Conclusion

When your networking projects call for fiber optic module for fiber optic links, these classification standards will work, since they help you to choose the right fiber optic modules for applications to ensure the reliable data transmission. FS.COM offers an ocean of fiber optic modules which are fully compatible with major brands, including the Brocade E1MGTX, and Avago Intel AFBR-703SDZ-IN2 mentioned above.

10GbE Interconnect Solutions Overview

New sophisticated networking services, coupled with the increase of Internet users push the Internet traffic to an even higher point, driving the need for increased bandwidth consequently. One Ethernet technology—10 Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) is adequate for such bandwidth demand, and has become widely available due to the competitive price and performance, as well as its simplified cabling structure.

Several cable and interconnect solutions are available for 10GbE, the choice of which depends on the maximum interconnect distance, power budget and heat consumption, signal latency, network reliability, component adaptability to future requirements, cost. Here cost includes more than what we call the equipment interface and cable cost, but more often the labor cost. Thus, choosing a 10GbE interconnect solution requires careful evaluation of each option against the specific applications. This text aims to introduce two main 10GbE interconnect solutions: fiber optics and copper.

Fiber Optics Solution

Fiber optic cables include single-mode fiber (SMF) and multi-mode fiber (MMF). MMF is larger in diameter than that of single-mode, thus portions of the light beam follow different paths as they bounce back and forth between the walls of the fiber, leading to the possible distorted signal when reach the other end of the cable. The amount of distortion increases with the length of the cable. The light beam follows a single path through thinner single-mode cable, so the amount of distortion is much lower.

fiber optics solution: SMF & MMF

The typical 10GBASE port type that uses MMF is 10GBASE-SR which uses 850nm lasers. When used with OM3 MMF, 10GBASE-SR can support 300m-connection distances, and when with OM4 MMF, 400m link length is possible through 10GBASE-SR SFP+ transceiver.

10GBASE-LR (eg. E10GSFPLR), 10GBASE-ER and 10GBASE-ZR are all specified to work via SMF. SMF can carry signals up to 80km, so it is more often used in wide-area networks. But since SMF requires a more expensive laser light source than MMF does, SMF is replaced by MMF when the required connection distance is not so long.

Copper Solution

10GBASE-CX4, SFP+ Direct Attach (DAC) and 10GBASE-T are all specified to operate through copper medium.

  • 10GBASE-CX4

Being the first 10GbE copper solution standardized by the IEEE as 802.3ak in 2002, 10GBase-CX4 uses four cables, each carrying 2.5gigabits of data. It is specified to work up to a distance of 15m. Although 10GBase-CX4 provides an extremely cost-effective method to connect equipment within that 15m-distance, its bulky weight and big size of the CX4 connector prohibited higher switch densities required for large scale deployment. Besides, large diameter cables are purchased in fixed lengths, causing problems in managing cable slack. What’s more, the space isn’t sufficient enough to handle these large cables.

  • SFP+ DAC

SFP+ Direct Attach Cable (DAC), or called 10GSFP+Cu, is a copper 10GBASE twin-axial cable, connected directly into an SFP+ housing. It comes in either an active or passive twin-axial cable assembly. This solution provides a low-cost and low energy-consuming interconnect with a flexible cabling length, typically 1 to 7m (passive versions) or up to 15m (active versions) in length. Below is the SFP+ to SFP+ passive copper cable assembly with 1m length, 487655-B21, a HP compatible 10GbE cabling product.

SFP+ to SFP+ passive copper cable assembly, 1m link length

  • 10GBASE-T

10GBASE-T, known as IEEE 802.3an-2006, utilizes twisted pair cables and RJ-45 connectors over distances up to 100m. Cat 6 and Cat 6a are recommended, with the former reaching the full length at 100m, and the latter at 55m. In a word, 10GBASE-T permits operations over 4-connector structured 4-pair twisted-pair copper cabling for all supported distances within 100m. Besides, 10GBASE-T cabling solution is backward-compatible with 1000BASE-T switch infrastructures, keeping costs down while offering an easy migration path from 1GbE to 10GbE.

Conclusion

In summary, two main media options are available for 10GbE interconnect: copper and fiber optics, including 10GBASE-CX4, SFP+ DAC, 10GBASE-T, 10GBASE-SR, 10GBASE-LR, 10GBASE-ER, 10GBASE-ZR, and so on. Fiberstore offers all these 10GBASE SFP+ modules and cables for your 10GbE deployment, which are quality-assured and cost-effective, like E10GSFPLR and 487655-B21 mentioned above. For more information about 10GbE interconnect solutions, you can visit Fiberstore.

1000BASE-X SFP Modules Overview

A continuous stream of manufacturing process improvements and product innovations has given fiber optical system several advantages, like longer distance reach, larger data-carrying capacity, greater bandwidth and lower power consumption. Among these fiber optical product innovations, hot-pluggable 1000BASE-X transceiver modules should come to the central point with their unique designs. They have been constantly designed, and finally been reinvented as hot-pluggable modules along with the optical technological advances. These small, hot-pluggable serve as the key components in accommodating the demands of higher port density and more networking flexibility.

Transceiver module comes into various types: SFP (small form-factor pluggable), SFP+ (small form-factor pluggable plus), QSFP+ (quad small form-factor pluggable plus), etc. This article mainly introduces SFP transceiver modules which are widely applied in Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) applications, with the focus on several 1000BASE-X interface types, including 1000BASE-SX, 1000BASE-LX, 1000BASE-EX, and 1000BASE-BX10-D/U.

Features and Benefits

1000BASE-X SFP modules provide a wide range of form factor options for enterprise and service provider needs. They are designed with the following features and benefits:

  • Hot swappable to maximize uptime and simplify serviceability;
  • Flexibility of media and interface choice on a port-by-port basis, so you can “pay as you populate”;
  • Sophisticated design for enhanced reliability;
  • Supports digital optical monitoring (DOM) function;
1000BASE-X SFP Interface Types

1000BASE-SX SFP

1000BASE-SX SFP, compatible with the IEEE 802.3z 1000BASE-SX standard, operates on legacy 50μm multi-mode fiber (MMF) links up to 550m and on 62.5μm Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI)-grade MMFs up to 220m. Take DEM-311GT for example, Fiberstore compatible D-Link 1000BASE-SX SFP is able to realize 550m link length through OM2 MMF with duplex LC.

DEM-311GT, D-Link 1000BASE-SX SFP

1000BASE-LX SFP

1000BASE-LX SFP, compatible with the IEEE 802.3z 1000BASE-LX standard, is specified to support link length of up to 10km on standard single-mode fiber (SMF), to 550m on MMFs. When used over legacy MMF, the transmitter should be coupled through a mode conditioning patch cable. The laser is launched at a precise offset from the center of the fiber which causes it to spread across the diameter of the fiber core, reducing the effect known as differential mode delay which occurs when the laser couples onto only a small number of available modes in MMF.

1000BASE-EX SFP

1000BASE-EX, sometimes referred to as LH, is a non-standard but industry accepted standard which works on standard SMF with fiber link spans up to 40km in length. For back-to-back connectivity, a 5-dB inline optical attenuator should be inserted between the fiber optic cable and the receiving port on the SFP at each end of the link. 1000BASE-EX SFPs (eg. GLC-EX-SMD) run on 1310nm wavelength lasers, and achieves 40km link length.

1000BASE-BX10-D/U SFP

The 1000BASE-BX-D and 1000BASE-BX-U SFPs, compatible with the IEEE 802.3ah 1000BASE-BX10-D and 1000BASE-BX10-U standards, operate on a single strand of standard SMF (figure shown below). A 1000BASE-BX10-D device is always connected to a 1000BASE-BX10-U device by a single strand of standard SMF with an operating transmission distance up to 10km.

1000BASE-X

The communication over a single strand of fiber is accomplished by separating the transmission wavelength of the two devices (figure shown above): 1000BASE-BX10-D transmits a 1490nm channel and receives a 1310nm signal, whereas 1000BASE-BX10-U transmits at a 1310-nm wavelength and receives a 1490-nm signal. In this figure, the wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) splitter is integrated into the SFP to split the 1310nm and 1490nm light paths.

Conclusion

These 1000BASE-X SFP modules provide physical layer connectivity for optical-port modular switch IO blades and optical-port stackable switches, reliable, and cost-effective choices to accommodate varied and evolving network demands. As a professional fiber optic product manufacturer and supplier, Fiberstore supplies all the above-mentioned several 1000BASE-X SFP modules which are all test- and quality-assured. You can visit Fiberstore for more information about 1000BASE-X SFP modules.

Related Article:Introduction to Single Strand Fiber Solution

Transceiver Module Selection Guide for Your Networking Use

Thanks to the advances made in fiber optical technologies, fiber solutions have been deployed in ever-increasing applications where high-speed and high-performance data transmission is needed. They outweigh the copper solutions in such aspects as higher bandwidth, longer distances and Electromagnetic interference (EMI) immunity. Transceiver module, one of the key components required in such fiber connections for high networking performance, have experienced the never-ceasing industrial designs, from lower port density to higher, from the standard modules to the final hot-pluggable ones, to meet the ever more flexible networking infrastructure.

There is a broad selection of hot-pluggable transceiver modules available for fiber networking use, and you may feel a little confused about how to select the correct transceiver module for your networking transmission. In this article, I will illustrate different aspects of transceivers that need to be known before choosing a transceiver.

Transceiver Module Basics

Before giving guidance to transceiver selection, it’s necessary to know the basics of transceiver. Transceiver is a combination of a transmitter and a receiver in a single package, while they function independently for bidirectional communication. Typically, a fiber optic transceiver converts the incoming optical signal to electrical and the outgoing electrical signal to optical. More specifically, the transmitter takes an electrical input and converts it to an optical output from a laser diode or LED. The light from the transmitter is coupled into the fiber with a connector and is transmitted through the fiber optic cable plant. The light from the end of the fiber is coupled to a receiver where a detector converts the light into an electrical signal which is then conditioned properly for use by the receiving equipment.

Here go the several aspects of transceiver modules that are helpful in your purchasing.

Form-factorseveral MSA transceiver module types

Multi-source agreements (MSAs) between different equipment vendors specify guidelines for electrical and optical interfaces, mechanical dimensions and electro-magnetic specification of a transceiver module. The equipment vendors follow these MSA defined values for designing their systems to ensure interoperability between interface modules. The form-factor or the MSA-type is needed so that the transceiver can mechanically and electrically fit into a given switch, router, etc. Transceiver MSAs define mechanical form factors including electric interface as well as power consumption and cable connector types. There are various MSA types: SFP (eg. MGBSX1), SFP+, XFP, CFP, CFP2, CFP4, QSFP and so on.

Transmission Media

Transceivers can work over single-mode fiber (SMF), multi-mode fiber (MMF), and copper. In different Ethernet applications, media can achieve different link lengths when combined with transceivers. Take Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) applications for example, single mode SFP transceivers can have a transmission distance of 5km to 120km, while multimode SFP transceivers are defined to have the maximum reach of 55om, with copper solution establishing even fewer link length at 25m. Take MGBLX1 for example, this Cisco compatible 1000BASE-LX SFP works through SMF for 10km reach.

Power Budget

The transceiver power budget is the difference between transmitter launch power and receiver sensitivity and has to be 2-3dB larger (Margin) than the measured link loss. If the link loss cannot be measured, it has to be calculated. Therefore transmission distance [km], the number of ODFs, patches and passive optical components (Muxes) have to be known. Common values for power budget are <10, 14, 20, 24, 28, >30dB.

power budget

If you’re seeking high-speed data carrier, transceivers can help accomplish goals. By transmitting data at 10Gbit/s, 40Gbit/s, 100Gbit/s or 12940Gbit/s, they can ensure that data arrives quickly. Transceiver modules that are capable of handling fast speeds can help with downloads and high and low bandwidth video transmission.

Conclusion

Transceiver modules are instrumental in ensuring that the data is transmitted securely, expeditiously, and accurately across the media. Choosing the right type of transceiver for your network is not always easy, but knowing above discussed parameters beforehand helps you narrow it down to a few transceivers. FS.COM offers a sea of transceiver modules which are fully compatible with major brands, like the above mentioned MGBSX1 and MGBLX1, the Cisco compatible transceiver modules.

Considerations About Optical Transceiver Designing

The rapid expansion of fiber optic networks, including data services measured by data volume or bandwidth, shows that fiber optic transmission technology is and will continue to be a significant part of future networking systems. Network designers are becoming increasingly comfortable with fiber solutions, since the use of which allows for more flexible network architecture and other advantages, such as EMI (Electromagnetic Interference) resilience and data security. Optical transceiver plays an really important role in these fiber connections. And while designing fiber optic transceivers, three aspects need to be considered: environmental situation, electrical condition and optical performance.

What Is a Optical Transceiver?

The optical transceiver is a self-contained component that transmits and receives signals. Usually, it is inserted in devices such as routers or network interface cards which provide one or more transceiver module slot. The transmitter takes an electrical input and converts it to an optical output from a laser diode or LED. The light from the transmitter is coupled into the fiber with a connector and is transmitted through the fiber optic cable plant. Then the light from the end of the fiber is coupled to a receiver where a detector converts the light into an electrical signal which is then conditioned properly for use by the receiving equipment. There are a full range of optical transceivers available in telecommunication market, like SFP transceiver, SFP+ transceiver (eg. SFP-10G-SR shown below), 40G QSFP+, 100G CFP, etc.SFP-10G-SR optical transceiver

Optical Transceiver Designing Considerations

It’s true that fiber links can handle higher data rates over longer distances than copper solutions, which drive the even wider use of optical transceivers. While designing fiber optic transceivers, the following aspects should be taken into consideration.

  • Environmental Situation

One challenge comes to the outside weather—especially severe weather at elevated or exposed heights. The components must operate over extreme environmental conditions, over a wider temperature range. The second environmental issue related to the optical transceiver design is the host board environment which contains the system power dissipation and thermal dissipation characteristics.

A major advantage of the fiber optic transceiver is the relatively low electrical power requirements. However, this low power does not exactly mean that the thermal design can be ignored when assembling a host configuration. Sufficient ventilation or airflow should be included to help dissipate thermal energy that is drawn off the module. Part of this requirement is addressed by the standardized SFP cage which is mounted on the host board and also serves as a conduit for thermal energy. Case temperature reported by the Digital Monitor Interface (DMI), when the host operates at its maximum design temperature, is the ultimate test of the effectiveness of the overall system thermal design.

  • Electrical Condition

Essentially, the fiber transceiver is an electrical device. In order to maintain error free performance for the data passing through the module, the power supply to the module must be stable and noise-free. What’s more, the power supply driving the transceiver must be appropriately filtered. The typical filters have been specified in the Multisource Agreements (MSAs) which have guided the original designs for these transceivers. One such design in the SFF-8431 specification is shown below.

filter

  • Optical Performance

Optical performance is measured as Bit Error Rate, or BER. The problem facing designing optical transceiver lie in the case that the optical parameters for the transmitter and receiver have to be controlled, so that any possible degradation of the optical signal while traveling along the fibers will not cause poor BER performance. The primary parameter of relevance is the BER of the complete link. That is, the start of the link is the source of the electrical signals which drive the transmitter, and at the end, the electrical signal is received and interpreted by the circuitry in the host by the receiver. For those communication links which use optical transceivers, the primary goal is to guarantee BER performance at different link distances, and to ensure broad interoperability with third party transceivers from different vendors.

Conclusion

Fiber technology is becoming maturer, leading to the wider use of optical transceivers. With the three aspects mentioned above in mind, designing fiber optic transceivers should be easier. FS.COM supplies many transceivers which are fully compatible with major brands, including HP compatible transceivers (eg. J4858C).

Two Main Questions About Direct Attach Cables

The increasing bandwidth demands in data centers call for new cost-effective network solutions that are able to provide great bandwidth and improved power efficiency. As such, direct attach cables (DACs) are designed to replace expensive fiber optic cables in some Ethernet applications, like choosing SFP+ DACs and QSFP+ DACs accordingly as 10 Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) and 40GbE cabling solutions to achieve high performance. How much do you know about this kind of cable? Do you know its such basic information as classifications? If not, then you can follow this article to understand DAC in depth based on the two main questions.

Question 1: What Is DAC?

DAC, a kind of optical transceiver assembly, is a form of high speed cable with “transceivers” on either end used to connect switches to routers or servers. Often referred to as twin-ax, this direct attach twin-axial cable is very similar to coaxial cable, except for one additional copper conductor core. DACs are much cheaper than the regular optics, since the “transceivers” on both ends of DACs are not real optics and their components are without optical lasers. In some 10GbE and 40GbE infrastructures, DACs have been selected to replace fiber optic patch cord when the required link length is relatively short. And in storage area network, data center, and high-performance computing connectivity, DACs are preferable choice because of their low cost, low power consumption and high performances.

Question 2: How DAC Is Classified?

When it comes to DAC’s classifications, there exist two primary standards: Ethernet transmission rate, material of cables.

Based on Ethernet transmission rate and construction standard, 10G SFP+ DACs, 40G QSFP+ DACs, and 120G CXP+ DACs are all available, meaning that DAC can be used as transmission medium for 10GbE, 40GbE, and 120GbE applications when combined as transceivers. Typical DAC assemblies have one connector on each end of the cable. Take SFP-10G-AOC1M for example, this Cisco compatible SFP+ to SFP+ Direct-Attach Active Optical Cable assembly has one SFP+ connector on each end of the cable, designed for relatively short reach that is 1m.

SFP-10G-AOC1M, one SFP+ connector at each end

According to material of cables used, DACs are available in direct attach copper cables and active optical cables (AOCs).

Direct Attach Copper Cable

Direct attach copper cables are designed in either active or passive versions, providing flexibility with a choice of 1-, 3-, 5-, 7-, and 10-meter lengths. The former provides signal processing electronics to avoid signal issue, thus to improve signal quality. What’s more, the former can transmit data over a longer distance than the latter which offers a direct electrical connection between corresponding cable ends. Both direct attach passive copper cables and direct attach active copper cables have gained popularity in data centers. For instance, EX-QSFP-40GE-DAC-50CM, the Juniper 40G cabling product, hot-removable and hot-insertable, is the QSFP+ to  QSFP+ direct attach passive copper cable assembly, really suitable for short distances of up to 0.5m(1.6ft), appropriate for highly cost-effective networking connectivity within a rack and between adjacent racks.

EX-QSFP-40GE-DAC-50CM, for short reach

Active Optical Cable

AOC is also one form of DAC. It uses electrical-to-optical conversion on the cable ends to improve speed and distance performance of the cable while mating with electrical interface standard. Compared with direct attach copper cable, its smaller size, electromagnetic interference immunity, lower interconnection loss and longer transmission distance make it popular among consumers.

DACs offer great flexibility in cabling length choices, simplify server connectivity in top-of-rack deployments, and reduce the power needed to transmit data. More importantly, DACs ensure high system reliability after going through rigorous qualification and certification testing, helping network designers to achieve new levels of infrastructure consolidation while expanding application and service capabilities.

Conclusion

DACs are able to provide an end-to-end solution that is easy to maintain, thus helping improve the availability of networks that support mission-critical applications. Fiberstore offers a broad selection of DACs with high quality for state-of art performance, 10G SFP+ DACs, 40G QSFP+ DACs, and 120G CXP+ DACs all included. For more information about DACs, you can visit Fiberstore.