Green cabling efforts enhanced with proper media converters

More and more businesses are investing in green cabling for variety reasons. LEED approval, improving reputation and other reasons are all at the top of the list, and companies often forsake other improvements in order to go green. However, as the criteria for LEED certification and what it means to go green in general evolve, companies have considerable factors to keep in mind.

Approval regulations

According to Cabling Instalation & Maintenance, the United States Green Building Council recently approved the LEED v4 rating system, and upgrade of the previous certification process. While applications filed under the previous version will be accepted until June 2015, the USGBC is migrating to v4 as quickly as possible.”There are 46 countries and territories around the world and all 50 U.S states represented in the voting pool for LEED v4,” LEED Steering Committee chair Joel Ann Todd said. “The rating system must earn a significant percentage of the overall vote as well as a majority approval from each of the various LEED stakeholder groups. This ensures that rating system approval represents the full diversity of USGBC’s membership.”

Communications

Many firms are starting to upgrade not only their heating, electrical and building materials to meet green standards, but network infrastructure and audio/visual communications technology as well. This means higher demand for high quality media converters and cabling solutions such as fiber optics.

Sustainability remains a concern through any business investment, and firms are ensuring that they embrace these practice as regulations become standardized for this technology as well.

Technology infrastructure

The key to embracing green initiatives and making sustainability a sustainable effort itself is having thte right technology in place that streamlines these efforts. High-quality Ethernet to fiber optic converter and related tools that help optimize networks and eliminate latency will be essential for success.

Fiber optics in particular is a popular solution for green infrastructure because it helps lower costs through reduced energy consumption and providing support for future changes as well.

“The high bandwidth and long link lengths supported by fiber networks enable LAN architectures that minimize the use of electronics – saving energy, reducing the materials needed, and creating a network with the bandwidth to support future applications,” the TIA Fiber Optic Technology Consortium noted, according to the source.

Ultimately, green efforts should start including fiber optic converters and cabling to ensure sustainability and help further efforts so that they are compliant with not only current standards, but future ones as well.

FiberStore do provide a large selection of professional fiber optic media converters for Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet, Serial Datacom interfaces, E1 or T1 voice/data communications and Media Converter Rack Chassis. As the best China fiber optic products supplier, FiberStore has an extensive range of fiber transceivers, fiber attenuators and optical fiber for sale. More information please contact us.

What is The Category 7 Cable

A Category 7 cable (cat 7 cable) is a type of shielded twisted pair cable used in high-speed Ethernet based computer networks of 1 Gbps or higher. It is defined and specified in the ISO/IEC 11801:2002, Class F specification. The Cat 7 cable is backward compatible with Cat 6, Cat 5/e cabling standard and equipments.

The Cat 7 cable is similar to the Cat 6 cable. Each has the same four-pair of twisted cables that support 10 Gbps Ethernet networks and stretch to 100 meters in length. It can provide a bandwidth speed of 600 MHz.

The Cat 7 cable provides more enhanced performance against crosstalk and attenuation than its previous peers by requiring that each pair be completely shielded and form a screen-shielded twisted pair (SSTP) or screen-foiled twisted pair (SFTP) based cabling. It is used in Gb Ethernet and 10 Gb Ethernet networks.

Cat 7 cable is commonly terminated using a GG45 connector, which is a connector that it backwards compatible with the 8p8c RJ45 connectors used on Cat6 or Cat5e cable. The GG45 connector has four additional conductors that provide support for frequencies of up to 600MHz, and up to 1000MHz using Cat7a. The higher frequencies allow Cat 7 cable to support 10-Gigabit Ethernet. Cat7 cable may also be terminated using TERA connectors, which were developed by Siemon. The TERA connector has a unique footprint and is not compatible with a standard 8p8c (RJ45) connector. The TERA connector is also capable of supporting frequencies of up to 600MHz using Cat7a cable. The ability to support the higher frequencies allows Cat7 and Cat7a cable to carry more data. This allows Cat7 and Cat7a cable to support Ethernet applications up to 10-Gigabit Ethernet.

What is the application for a data center?

Cat7 and Cat7a cabling will be used for backbone connections between servers within a data center. This provides a high-speed interconnect used for data transfer within the network.

Does this replace fiber?

This provides an alternative to using fiber optic cabling within the data center. Cat7 and Cat7a cabling will provide similar performance to some fiber solutions. The cost of equipment that supports copper cabling is typically less than equipment that supports fiber cabling. Another advantage is that the copper cabling is not as fragile as fiber cabling.

What’s the practical performance difference with Cat5e/6?

Cat7 and Cat7a cable are designed to support much higher frequency signals than Cat5e and Cat6. This allows Cat7 and Cat7a cabling to carry a larger amount of information. Cat7 and Cat7a cable are also able to better protect the signals traveling over the cable. The shielding as well as the tighter twists of the pairs in Cat7 and Cat7a cable lessens the effects of crosstalk and EMI.

Currently, Cat7 is not widely adopted. Cat5e and Cat6 solutions sufficiently support the bandwidth requirements of today’s data centers, networks, and end users. Using Cat7 for a connection to a desktop would be unnecessary because the bandwidth would not be utilized. It may also be an unnecessary expense for many data center applications for the same reason. However, as technology advances and requirements increase, Cat7 cable will become more relevant in the data center and desktop connections.

As the best fiber optic products supplier, FiberStore Inc. offer Cat7 twisted pair cables, Cat7 Patch Cable, Cat 7 Ethernet cables, if you would like to know our Cat 7 cable price please contact us or visit our website. We also supply other fiber optic products, such as fiber transceiverfiber attenuators, MPO connector and more. Welcome to contact us.

What is Optical Fiber Attenuators

An optical attenuator is a passive device that is used to reduce the power level of an optical signal. The attenuator circuit will allow a known source of power to be reduced by a predetermined factor, which is usually expressed as decibels. Fiber attenuators are generally used in single mode long-haul applications to prevent optical overload at the receiver.

Fiber Optical Attenuators typically come in two forms of packaging. The bulkhead optical attenuator can be plugged into the receiver receptacle. The inline attenuator resembles a patch cord and is typically used between the patch panel and the receiver.

The Principles of Optical Attenuators

Optical attenuators use several different principles in order to accomplish the desired power reduction. Fiber attenuators may use the gap-loss, absorptive, or reflective technique to achieve 
the desired signal loss. The types of attenuators generally used are fixed, stepwise variable, and continuously variable.

Gap-Loss Principle

The principle of gap-loss is used in optical attenuators to reduce the optical power level by inserting the device in the fiber path using an in-line configuration. Gap-loss attenuators are used to prevent the saturation of receiver and are placed close to the transmitter. Gap-loss attenuators use a longitudinal gap between two optical fibers so that the optical signal passed from one optical fiber to another is attenuated. This principle allows the light from the transmitting optical fiber to spread out as it leaves the optical fiber. When the light gets to the receiving optical fiber, some of the light will be lost in the cladding because of gap and the spreading that has occurred.

The gap-loss attenuator will only induce an accurate reduction of power when placed directly after the transmitter. These attenuators are very sensitive to modal distribution ahead of the 
transmitter, which is another reason for keeping the device close to the transmitter to keep the loss at the desired level. The farther away the gap-loss attenuator is placed from the transmitter, the less effective the attenuator is, and the desired loss will not be obtained. To attenuate a signal farther down the fiber path, an optical attenuator using absorptive or reflective techniques should be used.

Keep in mind that the air gap will produce a Fresnel reflection, which could cause a problem for the transmitter.

Absorptive Principle

The absorptive principle, or absorption, accounts for a percentage of power loss in optical fiber. This loss is realized because of imperfections in the optical fiber that absorb optical energy and convert it to heat. This principle can be employed in the design of an optical attenuator to insert a known reduction of power.

The absorptive principle uses the material in the optical path to absorb optical energy. The principle is simple, but can be an effective way to reduce the power being transmitted and received.

Reflective principle

The reflective principle, or scattering, accounts for the majority of power loss in optical fiber and again is due to imperfections in the optical fiber, which in this case cause the signal to scatter. The scattered light causes interference in the optical fiber, thereby reducing the amount of transmitted and received light. This principle can be employed in the planned attenuation of a signal. The material used in the attenuator is manufactured to reflect a known quantity of the signal, thus allowing only the desired portion of the signal to be propagated.

Now that we have looked at the principles behind the attenuator theories, we will discuss some of the types of fiber attenuators. We will examine fixed, stepwise variable, and continuously variable attenuators and when they should be used.

Types of Attenuators

Fixed attenuators are designed to have an unchanging level of attenuation. They can theoretically be designed to provide any amount of attenuation that is desired. The output signal is
attenuated relative to the input signal. Fixed attenuators are typically used for single-mode applications.

Stepwise variable attenuators

A stepwise variable attenuator is a device that changes the attenuation of the signal in known steps such as 0.1dB, 0.5dB, or 1dB. The stepwise attenuator may be used in applications dealing with multiple optical power sources—for example, if there are three inputs available, there may be a need to attenuate the signal at a different level for each of the inputs.

Conversely, the stepwise attenuator may also be used in situations where the input signal is steady, yet the output requirements change depending on the device that the signal is output to.

The stepwise attenuator should be used in applications where the inputs, outputs, and operational configurations are known.

Continuously variable attenuator

Continuously variable attenuator is an attenuator that can be changed on demand. These attenuators generally have a device in place that allows the attenuation of the signal to change as required. A continuously variable attenuator is used in uncontrolled environments where the input characteristics and output needs continually change. This allows the operator to adjust the 
attenuator to accommodate the changes required quickly and precisely without any interruption to the circuit.

Calculating the attenuation value

In summary, there are many types of attenuators and many principles on which they work. The key to choosing the appropriate one is to understand the theory on which each operates and the application that the attenuator will be applied to. Of course, you also need to be able to determine the attenuator value in decibels required for your application.

In this example let’s assume that the maximum optical input power a fiber optic receiver can operate with is -6dBm. If the input power exceeds this power level, the receiver will be overloaded. The transmitter, which is located 10km from the receiver, has an output power of 3dBm. The loss for the 10km of optical fiber, including interconnections, is 5dB.

To calculate the minimum attenuation required to prevent the receiver from being overloaded, we need to subtract all the known losses from the output power of the transmitter as shown here:

Transmitter power (TP) = 3dBm
Receiver maximum optical input power (MP) = –6dBm
Total losses (TL) = 5dB
Minimum attenuation required = MP + TL – TP–6dBm + 5dB – 3dBm = –4dB

At a minimum, a 4dB attenuator is required. However, an attenuator with a larger value could be used as long as it did not over-attenuate the signal.

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Introduce of Ethernet to Fiber Optic Converters

Ethernet Media Converter is a device to convert and transmit Ethernet networks into Ethernet fiber optic networks. It can convert digital electric Ethernet signals to optical signals. Ethernet to fiber optic converter enable connections of UTP copper-based ethernet equipment over a fiber optic link to take advantage of the benefits of fiber which include:

a. Extending links over greater distances using fiber optic cable

b. protecting datafrom noise and interference

c. Future proofing your network with additional bandwidth capacity

Copper-based Ethernet connections are limited to a data transmission distance of only 100 meters when using unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cable. By using an ethernet to fiber conversion solution, fiber optic cabling can now be used to extend this link over a greater distance.

An Ethernet to fiber media converter can also be used where there is high level of electromagnetic interference or EMI which is a common phenomenon found in industrial plants. This interference can cause corruption of data over copper-based ethernet links. Data transmitted over fiber optic cable however is completely immune to this type of noise. An Ethernet to fiber optic converter therefore enables you to inter-connect your copper-ethernet devices over fiber ensuring optimal data transmission across the plant floor. By utilizing ethernet to fiber media converters, the benefits of fiber optic cabling can now be realized for copper-based ethernet infrastructures.

The advantages of Ethernet to Fiber Optic Converters

1. Protects your investment in existing copper ethernet-based hardware

2. Provides you with the flexibility to add fiber on a port-by-port basis

3. Enjoy the benefits of fiber without have to make wholesale changes

4. Fast ethernet or Gigabit ethernet to multi-mode or single mode

5. Ethernet to fiber and fiber back to ethernet links

6. Create copper-fiber connections with fiber switches

Media Converters for Ethernet fiber converter transforms the signal from a UTP/RJ45 ethernet link to one that can be used by a fiber transceiver. Media converters can connect to various optical fiber cable such as multimode, single mode or single strand fiber cable. Options exist for many distances to suit the needs of a particular ethernet to fiber application. And, fiber interface connectors can be dual ST, dual SC, dual LC or single SC type.

Ethernet to fiber media converter models that are best suited for enterprise and Service provider applications, offer an on-board processor that continuously monitors that both the copper and fiber connections are up. This functionality, generally referred to as “Link Pass-Through”, monitors the state of the link to the end devices and to ensure that each end-point knows whether the entire link is up or not. Some media converter products do not have this intelligence and simply “nail up” the link even though the remote copper device may be down or the fiber link broken. With Link Passthrough functionality available in all Perle Ethernet to Fiber Optic Converters, the network’s SNMP management system can be alerted when a fault occurs so that corrective action can take place.

The most common type of Ethernet Fiber Converter is one that is a standalone device (managed or unmanaged) with its own power adapter. They convert fixed speed Fast Ethernet, Gigabit or rate converting 10/100/1000 UTP links to 100Base-FX or 1000Base-X fiber connections. Where a large density of media converters are required, chassis-based systems are also available. These rack mountable units can house up to 19 managed or unmanaged media converter modules providing redundant power for AC and 48v DC environments.

FiberStore supply many types of Ethernet Media Converter, such as 10/100M BIDI WDM Ethernet media converter, 10/100M Ethernet media converter with SFP port or SC port. These media converters extend transmission distances well beyond the capabilities of twisted pair wiring, and can reach up to 2km, 20km, 40km, 60km, 80km, 100km, or 120km. Choose FiberStore Inc. for the right product to meet your fiber conversion project needs. FiberStore Inc. also provides fiber optic switch,fiber attenuators, MPO connector and more.

WDM Networks: The Transponder

In optical fiber communications, Optical Transponder sends and receives the optical signal from a fiber. A transponder is typically characterized by its data rate and the maximum distance signal travels.

The transponders are of two types namely transmit transponders and receive transponders. The function of transmit transponder is to convert the incoming optical signal into pre-defined optical wavelength. The transponder (transmit) first converts the optical signal to an electrical signal and performs reshaping, retiming and retransmitting functions, also called 3R functions. The electrical signal is then used to drive the laser, which generates the optical signals having optical wavelength. The output from the all transponders (transmits) is fed to combiner in order to
combine all optical channels in optical domain. In receive transponder, reverse process takes place.

Individual wavelengths are first split from the combined optical signal with the help of Fiber Optical Splitter and then fed to individual receive transponders, which convert the optical signal to electrical, thus 3R function and finally convert the signal back to the optical. Thus the individual channels are obtained. As the output of the transponder is factory set to a particular wavelength, each optical channel requires unique transponder.

Often, fiber optic transponders are used for testing interoperability and compatibility. Typical tests and measurements include jitter performance, receiver sensitivity as a function of bit error rate (BER), and transmission performance based on path penalty. Some fiber optic transponders are also used to perform transmitter eye measurements.

The transponder according to the invention utilises delays that are switchable between different optical fiber lines, so as to be able to select many different lengths without the necessity of re-designing the same transponder. Moreover, the transponder according to the invention uses a Single Side Band (SSB) optical component which produces an optical shift of the frequency of the radar signal, that avoids the drawbacks and solves the problems of the traditional electrical systems. The transponder according to the invention is comprised in multifunctional radar systems and allows at least three different uses: the first is the systems calibration on the basis of moving targets that are simulated in the production step,the second one is the performances test of a radar that has already been calibrated in the step of the system acceptance by the client (Field Acceptance Test), and the third one is the support to the identification of possible faults and nonworking partsof the radar, during the operation life of the same radar system. The transponder of the invention comes out to be easily producible and transportable.

An integrated transponder will also be needed: one transponder that couples to 10 individual fibers at a much lower cost than 10 individual transponders. With a super-channel transponder, several wavelengths are used, each with its own laser, modulator and detector. Photonic integration is the challenge to achieve a cost-effective transponder.

The Difference Between Fiber Optic Transponder And Fiber Transceiver

A transponder and transceiver are both functionally similar devices that convert a full-duplex electrical signal in a full-duplex optical signal. The difference between the two is that fiber transceivers interface electrically with the host system using a serial interface, whereas transponders use a parallel interface. So transponders are easier to handle lower-rate parallel signals, but are bulkier and consume more power than transceivers.

The Data Center Infrastructure of 40G and 100G

Once the server upgrade, top of rack switch uplink require a higher speed. However, during the transition from 1G to 10G full of frustrations. In the past, server vendors comes 1GbE RJ-45 LAN-on-motherboard is free of charge. But now a dual-port 10GBASE-T expensive. Cat5e is almost free, Interconnect never in the past is not a serious cost problem, and now it is. The server companies sale 10G ports, can be mounted on pluggable “daughter card”, cut off the posterior of the subsequent market competitiors and monopoly high prices. Daughter card can and 1G 10GBASE-T, 2-4 SFP+ port and dual-port QSFP combination. With 100G CXP and CFP /2 will be collocation is used. Due to server company in 10G/40G upgrades made a large sums of money, we will ask such a question: “server company will return to the LOM mode, buyers will not need to pay?” Our answer: Yes. But just before the transition to 40G! 10GBASE-T has a problem in high power consumption, size and cost, therefore, when the market of the 10GBASE-T in the development of 28-nm version, so that the SFP+ DAC take advantage. This makes the entire industry landscape has changed greatly. DAC also has its problems. Because it is electrically connected to two different systems, not all of the SFP+ port is the same.

The server-switch link update from 1G to 10G, and the switch uplink increased to 40G, TOR (Top of Rack) switch to connect to the EOR (End of Row) switch until the aggregation switching layer. Data center operators just the economic gloom stood up, still tight budget. “Incremental upgrade” is the investment strategy of the operators. Increase “necessary” 10G/40G link is the current investment. 100G seems to be the exhibition and media attention, but 40G is to make money in the next 2-3 years. Data center began to need 4 ~ 6g, not even to 10G. Therefore, many data center is still in excess, will need to upgrade “. Google, Facebook, Microsoft and other so-called $ 1 billion super data center so that people stare, but they do not represent the mainstream of the data center.

To chase fiber transceiver opportunities, multiple transceiver suppliers is the first to provide less than 50 meters transmission distance of 40G QSFP SR transceiver and Ethernet AOC. 40G QSFP MSA blessed with multi-mode fiber can support short-range (SR) – 100 meters, with the dual-core single-mode fiber with 10km-all in the same QSFP switch port can support. QSFP can plug 36-44 ports per line card, while the CFP can only be inserted 2 in 32W. Although it is very popular in the telecommunications, but not in data communication! OEM prices ranging from $2000 to $3000, it depending on the needs of the data center or telecommunications.

The urgent need for the data center to support tens of thousands of 100G medium transmission link length from the information explosion in demand. Industry conference clamoring. These flow requirements from server virtualization, big data, smart phones, tablet PCs and even software defined network (SDN). Large core switch companies mainly 10-Channel CXP for multi-mode, working together with the transceiver and the AOC. In 4x25G the 25G transmission, multi-mode noise spikes may pose a threat to the multimode transceiver down to 25-50 meters FEC and / or equalization may be required to reach 125 meters. This will make 25-125 meters away from the transceiver higher prices. With 2km Single mode Fiber Optic Transceiverprices narrowed.

At present, the transmission distance of 100m – 600m, there is no economically feasible 100G solutions (unless it can be described with two 40G and 10G transceivers). When the data center becomes greater, which is a hot spot, the IEEE focus of debate. Each additional add 1m, causes the transceiver OEM Price from CXP $ 1,000 he went to the telecentres CFP $ 16,000! Usually claimed transmission 2 km, in fact, can only transmit 400-600 meters, in a loss of data center environments, patch panel and dirty connector can only get 4-5 dB, 10 km link you need to 6dB. Next-generation lasers and instead of SiGe CMOS electronic devices are being developed, but, CMOS electronic harder to develop.

The 40G and 100G are two main data center “form”. Short-range transceiver (SR4), the use of multimode optical fiber can transmit about 100 meters. Using single-mode fiber can transmit 100 meters to 10 kilometers long range transceiver (LR4). This so-called, no formal terminology NR4 aspirations 2km 4dB. SR transceivers typically used to connect a computer cluster and switch layer in the data center. SR transceiver and OM4 fiber combination, can transmit about 300 meters. 125-200 meters, the conversion using single-mode fiber, transceivers and fiber can bring benefit return; even in 25G transmission, also can bring benefits.

The 40G usually in the QSFP or QSFP MSA, usually in four of the 10G channels laying. SR transceiver uses eight multimode fiber (corresponding to one direction), VCSEL lasers and QSFP MSA. LR transceiver uses edge-emitting lasers, multiplex four 10G channels to two single-mode fiber, the single-mode fiber in the transmission of the CFP module MSA 10km, soon also be reached in 28 CFP / 2 and QSFP MSA on this distance. 40G, SR4 and LR4 can be used for the same QSFP switch interface, no problem – just plug in, you can run – you can reach one meter -10 km without any problems. (But still does not work in the 100G)

The 100G SR10 use 20 multimode fiber, VCSELs and CXP MSA. 100G LR4 CFP and two single-mode fiber. Though he promised transmission 100 meters, but the SR10 CXP transceiver typically used to connect large-scale aggregation and core switches from less than 50 meters, when the distance becomes longer, the more than 20-mode fiber will be very expensive, because the multi-mode the optical fiber is about 3 times more expensive than the single-mode fiber. Only in 2012, a number of transceiver companies have announced the development of the CXP 100G SR transceiver. The the 40G QSFP transceiver and the AOCs since 2008 come out. Later on, 4x25G QSFP SR transceiver may to appear CXP transceiver market 10x10G.

Source: fiberstore.com