What is The Optical Fiber Cable

The fiber optic cable is mainly constituted by the optical fiber (fiberglass) as thin as a hair and plastic protective casing and plastic sheath, and metals such as gold, silver, copper and aluminum in the fiber optic cable, usually no recycling value. The fiber optic cable is a certain number of optical fiber in accordance with certain the cable core outsourcing jacket, and some coated outer sheath for optical signal transmission of a communication line.

fiber optic cable

Communication optical cable with greater transmission capacity than copper cable relay distance, small size, light weight, no electromagnetic interference, since 1976 has developed into a long-distance lines, the city relay, offshore and transoceanic submarine communications , as well as local area networks, private networks, such as cable transmission line backbone, and began to the development of the field of town subscriber loop wiring network, fiber to the home, the wide-generation integrated Services Digital Network transmission line.

The history of fiber optic cable

In 1976, American Bell Institute built the first fiber optic communication experimental system in Atlanta, the use of a cable containing 144 fibers manufactured by the Western Electric Company. In 1980, a commercial made by multimode fiber optic cable using the city interoffice trunks and a few long-distance line. The commercial made of single-mode fiber optic cable in 1983, began to be used in the long-distance line. 1988, the first connection between the United States and Britain and France across the Atlantic submarine cable laying, soon after the completion of the first undersea fiber optic cable across the Pacific. China in 1978, self-developed communications cable, multimode fiber cable core structure of the layer stranded. In Shanghai, Beijing, Wuhan and other places has conducted field trials. In the local telephone network as soon after the interoffice trunks trial, after 1984, gradually for long-distance lines, and began using single-mode fiber.

The cable network is the cornerstone of the information highway

The fiber optic cable network transmission of all kinds of information in today’s information society tools. If the “Internet” is referred to as the “information highway” — fiber optic network, fiber optic network is the cornerstone of the information highway is the physical routing of the Internet. Once a cable is damaged and blocking, the direction of the “information superhighway” shall be destroyed. Outside information through fiber optic cable transmission, in addition to the usual telephone, telex, fax, and now a large number of transmission, there is a TV signal, bank transfer, the moment the stock market can not be interrupted. At present, the transmission mode of long-distance communications cable from PDH to SDH development, the transfer rate from the development of the original 140MB/S to 2.5GB/S, 4 x 2.5GB / S, 16 x 2.5GB / S or even higher, that is,said one pair of the core can be opened for 30,000, 120,000, 480,000, and even to the development of more telephone channels. Such a large transmission capacity, fiber optic cable, once blocking not only to the telecommunications sector, causing huge losses, and communication poor, give to the masses to cause a lot of inconvenience, such as computer users can not access the stock market can not be known, the bank exchange rate can not be, remote memory taken to vanish into thin air, and all kinds of information can not be transferred. In remote mountainous areas, once the fiber optic cable is interrupted, it will make the county even fiber optic cable along several counties in the communication on the isolation and become the islands. The loss caused to the party, government and military authorities and the people is immeasurable.

Fiber or simplified for the optical fiber, is a use of the principle of total reflection of the light in the glass or plastic fibers reach ligh conducting tool. Fine optical fiber encapsulated in a plastic sheath, such that it can be bent and thus will not fracture. Typically, the end of the fiber-emitting devices using ligh emitting diodes (light emitting diode, LED) or a laser light pulse is transmitted to the optical fiber, the other end of the optical fiber of the receiving apparatus using the photosensitive member detection pulse. In daily life, since the conduction losses of light in the optical fiber conduction loss in the wire is much lower than the electrical, optical fibers are used for long distance transmission of information. Gradually lowered with the price of the fiber, the fiber is also used for medical and recreational purposes.

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The Difference Between Fiber Optic Cable, Twisted Pair and Cable

In network hardware, as well as a class can not be ignored is the network transmission medium, usually referred to as a network cable. Common cable of thin twisted pair, fiber optic cable, coaxial cable, and coarse coaxial cable.

Fiber Optic Cable

The fiber optic cable is a new generation of transmission media, compared with copper media, fiber, both in terms of safety, reliability, or network performance has been greatly improved. In addition, the bandwidth of the optical fiber transmission far beyond copper cable, and its support maxium connection distance of more than two kilometers, is the inevitable choice for the formation of large-scale networks. Because the fiber optic cable has good resistance to electromagnetic interference, confidentiality, speed and transmission capacity, so its price is also more expensive at home, rarely used. Now more common with the two different types of optical fiber, respectively, is a single-mode optical fiber and multi-mode optical fiber (the so-called “mode” refers to a beam of light entering the fiber at a certain angle). Multimode fiber is generally used in the same office or relatively close area network connection. And a higher quality of the data of the single-mode optical fiber transmission, the transmission distance is longer, typically is used to connect the office or between geographically dispersed broader network. If the use of fiber optic cable as a network transmission medium, the need to increase the optical end transceiver equipment, the cost of inputs greater, less used in general applications.

Twisted Pair

Twisted pair cable is a flexible communications cable, containing a pair of insulated copper wire, it’s cheap, it is widely used, such as common telephone line.Depending on the maximum transfer rate, twisted pair can be divided into three categories, Category 5 and Category 5 super. Rate of 3 twisted pair to 10mb/s class of up to 100mb/s, while the ultra category up to 155mb/s or more, may be suitable for the future multimedia data transmission needs, it is recommended that a Category 5 or Category 5 super double standed wire. Twisted pair can also be divided into a shielded twisted pair (STP) and unshielded twisted pair (UTP). STP twisted pair, although the rate is lower (only 4mb/s), but the anti-interference ratio utp twisted pair, so the price should be a lot more expensive type of twisted pair cheap a few dollars a meter, it may more than a dozen yuan to buy one meter. In contrast, utp twisted pair price is generally about one meter, relatively low. In addition, used the 10m and 100m popular unshielded twisted pair is called 10base-t and 100base-t, we can often see in the market. Also supporting the use of rj45 crystal head and twisted pair for making twisted pair NIC rj45 interface connector, its quality is directly related to the stability of the entire network, and can not be ignored.

Coaxial Cable

Coaxial cable transmission medium is more familiar with a lot of friends, it is by layers of insulated wire wrapped around the central copper conductor cable, its most important feature is the anti-jamming capability, stable transmission of data, and the price is cheap, so, once widely used, such as closed circuit television lines. Previously coaxial cable with more, mainly because coaxial cable bus structure composed of network costs lower, but the single cable damage may lead to paralysis of the entire network, maintenance difficult, and this is its biggest drawbacks. Ethernet applications of coaxial cable into the thick coaxial cable (10base5) and thin coaxial cable (10base2) two kinds. Now not thick coaxial, thin coaxial cable market. The thin coaxial line general market price a few dollars a meter, not too expensive. Coaxial cable is used to and bnc head connected coaxial cable to sell on the market are generally and bnc head connection of the finished product, we can directly use.

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The Core Components of The Fiber Optic Connector: Ceramic Ferrule

What is ceramic ferrule? As the name suggests, the main material of the ceramic ferrule is ceramics, however, thia is not just ceramic so simple. Ceramic ferrules must be used in fiber optic communication, it is to ensure the communication quality is a very important role.

We all know that fiber connection technology is divided into two categories, one class is permanently connected, often called fixed joints dead joints; another class activities removable connection, often referred to as the union, need to use fiber optic connector. In the transmission network, a fiber optic cable connection between the permanent connection, the optical fiber connector is mainly used to implement the system between devices, between the equipment and instruments, equipment and between the optical fibers and the optical fibers and optical fiber between nonpermanent the fixed connection, it is the optical communication system of the most widespread and the largest use of basic passive devices. Matching ceramic material with quartz fiber thermal, physical and chemical properties and stability, as the core device with ceramic ferrule fiber optic connectors has been developed rapidly.

The most important role of the ceramic ferrule fiber physical docking (also known as fiber cold splice), often used in conjunction with ceramic sleeve, Ceramic cylindrical tube fired zirconia ceramic ferrule, hard texture, delicate white color accuracy of the finished sub-micron level, is the most commonly used in optical fiber communication network, the largest number of precision positioning pieces, often used for the manufacture of the optical connector, the optical coupling of the devices, and the like.

Like the ciruit in the plug and receptacle, the ferrule and sleeve are the key components of fiber optic connector. The diameter of only 0.125mm optical fiber must pass through the inner bore of the ceramic ferrule, and to maintain a linear transmissin of the state; connected to the outgoing optical fiber in the other end of the ceramic ferrule. Straight and precise connection directly affect the transmission efficiency of the optical fiber. Ceramic ferrule is not only highly internal hole diameter, while the outer diameter and concentricity requirements higher. And the optical connector because of the need for multiple plug, after repeated use must maintain the same accuracy of the same, very high demands on the material density.

The ceramic ferrule classification and features

Ceramic ferrule in accordance Dimensions is divided into three categories of SC, LC, and non-standard, in accordance with its precision, can be divided into two kinds of single-mode and multimode. The industry is often referred to as SC singlemode ferrule SC multimode ferrule LC singlemode ferrule LC multimode ferrule non-standard ferrule.

The ceramic ferrule characteristics depend on the characteristics of the material zirconia, mainly reflected in the good thermal stability, high hardness, high melting point, and wear-resistant, high machining accuracy.

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Application of Fiber Optic Connector and Its Terminal Consider Analysis

BNC connectors commonly used with the A/V industry, fiber connector with fiber optic technology continues to mature gradually. Copper connectors on the AV system signal loss generally will not be great, the optical connection is different, its transmission system interface will play a very large effect. Let’s take a look at some of the issues arising in fiber physical connection, fiber optic transmission equipment itself may direct connection, but in some cases, most or almost all of the fiber optic transmission connectivity options are artificially personally. The amount of signal loss by the quality and type of the used optical fiber cable, each connecting end will produce a certain signal is lost. According to the user to select different types of fiber connector, connecting end signal loss add up to the total amount may exceed the amount of fiber optic cable signal loss.

To maintain the normal operation of the system

In the fiber optic system design, the system is capable of normal operation, we achieved very good results, we need to consider some unexpected problems may appear in the system design, and want the system to achieve the effect of normal operation. System design, we have to take into account the worst case may appear and make appropriate plans, looking forward to better operational results. Fiber optic connector design certainly want this idea to heart. In system design, security, stability and system connection requirements the end of the fiber is smooth, Founder. The connection between the client and the client must be precise, micron accuracy or millionths of a meter. Commonly used in the multimode fiber from 50-62.5 microns in diameter, while the diameter of the single-mode fiber is only 8-9 microns. This diameter size of a human hair (17-180 microns) in diameter compared to see any trace of error can bring catastrophic losses.

The fiber optic connection very stringent precision requirements, the connector must be very clean. Fiber optic connectors and accessories are usually mounted on a set of house, a finger print or external dust may seriously affect the performance of the connector, and even lead to transmission failure. Therefore, the connector is not connected, it should be stored in clean protective sleeve in.

In connection, we should also fiber optic connector wedge tight “ferrule” all optical fiber connector design to ensure accurate when the connector with. The optical fiber terminal is inside the ferrule, become a permanent element by adhesive or crimping tight hoop. A built-in optical fiber is inserted, put the ferrule end ground smooth, smooth interface connector fiber optic connection. Ferrules are usually made from a relatively hard material such as ceramic, of course, can also be stainless steel, plastic, or made of a tungsten carbide material, the SC, ST and FC universal ferrule diameter of 2.5mm, the LC common ferrule diameter 1.25mm. Can be due to the functional characteristics of the ferrule to be produced in accordance with the precision requirements, fiber optic connector will become the primary determining characteristics. In connection ferrule, the spring container ferrule guarantee coaxial alignment between the optical fiber and LED or laser source.

With the expansion of technology development and application of fiber optic connectors rapid development. Now in the market the use of optical fiber connector is about 12 or more, each of which is to meet a specific need arises at the historic moment, of course, there are certain technical limitations. Market trend toward a moderate price, compact connector mode development, greater transmission density to support the requirements of the new transmission distribution system. As users expect that the continuous development of the telecommunications industry also contributed to the large scale application of the optical fiber, in large part due to rapid growth in the demand due to the types of communications and entertainment services on the fiber optic connection.

Terminal Consider

Traditionally, fiber optic terminal is generally slower, higher prices are also high, the equipment and technical requirements. Consider fiber singlemode cable terminal, you should take into account several factors. In some cases, we can choose according to various fiber types set up the terminal cable.

The tailor-mount applications, we can only select a specific terminal, but spliced tools, can reduce the length of single-mode fiber-site terminal extension, reduce the number of demand and technology use. For multimode optical fiber cable, spliced new method uses a simple optical fiber cutting method, the cable to be assembled into a pre-designed connector / cable. This method is very simple, just a fiber-to-fiber connector butt joints are usually used a special optical gel fiber terminal condensation.
Source: FiberStore.com