Who is the Offender to Destroy the Fiber Cables?

Ever since fiber cables have been applied to the communication network, the fiber footprints cover all over the world. Fiber cables are essential components of nearly all modern computer and communications systems. They’re like the veins of the global communication systems, buried and aerial paths, even under the ocean. Fiber cables are all around us and incessantly supply the information and data to us. However, there is an annoying thing that once the fiber cables were damaged or cut, it may cause a big loss because of the network disruption. So, who is the offender to destroy fiber cables? This paper will tell you the truth, but unfortunately, there may be more than one.

Construction

Construction companies and excavators seem like the natural enemy of buried cables. Construction comes in many forms. Backhoes, post-hole augers and even hand shovels can all bring network traffic to a halt by severing your fiber optic cable. You would think that they would have called someone and tried to make sure they weren’t cutting into something dangerous like gas or oil. But ironically, they never do that before they dig.

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Nature & Weather

The biggest offender to destroy fiber cables are nature and extreme weather conditions. Hurricanes, mud slides, flood and ice storms etc. natural disaster and extreme weather are nightmare not only to our personal life and property, but also the fiber cables. We can make snowman and go skating in colder climates. What a pleasant thing! However, at this time, the frontline cable engineer must to do an emergency network repair under such harsh conditions in order to avoid additional damage and downtime. Because water that enters a splice enclosure can freeze, crushing the fiber strands and leaving you with a costly network outage. Additionally, lightning is also a factor to destroy fiber cables. When lightning strikes the ground, it will search for the best conductor available, even if it’s underground. If that happens to be the armor or trace-wire of your fiber cable, then damage to the cable sheath and even the fiber itself is very likely.

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Artificial Destruction

Here humans refers to the people who steal the fiber. They cut the fiber thinking it has value and can be sold in pieces. The most classical event is that a 75 year-old woman in Georgia (country in Asia) was digging with her spade, looking for copper, which she wanted to sell for scrap, when she accidentally cut the fiber optic cable that provided internet to 90% of Armenia. It is ridiculous. It is fiber but not copper! In addition, people vandalize the fiber cable in other ways, e.g. for gun practice. This especailly happens in the rough parts of town which makes the cable repair work become dangerous. Furthermore, land disputes which causes artificial malicious damage of fiber is also a fiber damage reason.

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Animals Chew & Bite

We can try to reason with humans and publicize our buried fiber cable, but there is nothing we can do about the cable damage causing by animals. Squirrel, a furry little nut eater, seems to be deeply fond of fiber cable sheathing besides nuts. We even doubt that the cable manufacturers of using peanut oil in the sheathing. Since they have a life-long drive to gnaw, squirrel is often responsible for extensive damage to fiber optic cable. Even metal armored cable can get cut in two by this furry critter. In addition, undersea cables aren’t exempt from cuts. Because there is another animal under ocean like to bite cables. It is shark. Why shark would like to eat fiber cables? Effect by magnetic fields is one of the explaining at present. We have no idea how we can combat these wayward rodents. Now, only thing we can do is always looking for ways to improve.

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Vehicle Damage

This is an unimaginable thing why vehicle will damage the fiber cable. Vehicle, here mainly refers to big trucks, or maybe small airplane. From people running into telephone poles to truckers underestimating the height of their rigs – it’s all part of the problem. For example, a cable damage accident causing by a truck happened in Pennsylvania. A trucker got lost and accidently turned down a residential street. His rig got tangled up in a mess of overhead phone cables. But that didn’t stop him! He kept pushing forward until his rig was tied up like a Christmas present. He was dragging a 20 foot section of broken telephone pole down the street before he stopped to see what was impeding his progress. To address this situation, we can forbid trucks from entering the residential street or city by limiting the height of the vehicles. However, accident always happens with all kinds of tricks, e.g. a small airplane will destroy the fiber cables. This happened in California. A small airplane was attempting to land at the Burbank International Airport and overshot the runway and crashed in a residential area. It clipped the poles that the aerial fiber was attached to, causing everything to come down. Though it is just a small probability event, it really refresh the record of fiber cut causing by vehicle.

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Cable Protection, Repair and Recovery

During all of these bizarre and annoying causes of fiber damage, no matter artificial destruction, natural disasters, animals, or even impossible odds, we may never know in advance which will happen, and even can’t blame it. Only thing we can do is to take a good protection for our fiber cables. Waterproof fiber cables, armored fiber cables and the other outdoor cables which are designed to protect fibers in a harsh application environment are widely used in this field. Of course, more better protection methods will be developed in the future. In fact, there are some force majeure factors which cause signal loss and cut the network. Repairs and recovery service are necessary. There is a group of people who are willing to get down into the trenches in the first time, make the necessary repairs and recovery service every time when network is down. They are great and worthy of respect.

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Article From: Fiberstore Blog

Show You How to Install Outdoor Fiber Optic Cable In Underground Ducts

Fiber ducts are usually made of HDPE (high density polyethylence), PVC or other compound. They are usually in black or gray. Fiber innerduct is usually orange or yellow.

Why usually fiber ducts and innerducts are corrugated?

Fiber ducts and innerducts are corrugated to provide the following benefits:

1. During the installation to reduce the traction tension;

2. Very flexible and can be used to install location involves many times;

3. After installation, corrugated innerduct should place one day allow innerduct retreat back into the duct through its waveform spring action.

The use of pulling tape

Fiber optic cable traction tape is pre-installed in the fiber duct and innerduct in the factory. This saves a lot of time during the installation process. Duct and innerduct can also be prelubricated in the factory, thus significantly reduces pulling tensions.

Never bend over its minimum bend radius

Like a fiber optic cable, fiber duct and innerduct also have a minimum bending radius specification. Always should be bent pipe or innerduct tightening than its minimum bending radius.

What is supported and unsupported radius?

The supported radius is the minimum bend radius when the duct is bent around a supporting structure such as in another duct or on a reel. The unsupported radius is the minimum bend radius when the duct has no supporting structure in the bend.

Benefits of using fiber duct and innerduct

Fiber duct- Fiber duct protects the fiber cables and also provides an opportunity for future cable access and expansion. Fiber optic cable can be pulling into existing duct. The duct should usually be oversized to allow future cables be pulled in.

Fiber innerduct- Fiber innerduct of fiber optic cable to provide protection from the other company of cable installation. It also provides additional protection of the environment. Innerduct or fiber can be used in the old pipe installation.

Things to keep in mind

1. Install the end plug

After the fiber optical cable is installed into a duct or innerduct, end plugs should be installed to provide a water seal. No pieces should be able to enter the duct or innerduct, and watertight should always be maintained for the duct or innerduct.

2. Duct and innerduct should be properly sized for future expansion possibility

As usual, the expansion of the plan for the future project is crucial to the success of the real. The ration of up to 40% is a good practice to fill the following. Should increase the length of pipe size is the length of installed with many times. A larger pipe can help reduce the tension in the cable drawing. 3 to 8 inches standard pipe sizes in different ID and innerduct size range from 0.75 to 2 inches.

The benefit of using duct lubricant

Duct lubricant can significantly reduce the cable’s coefficient of friction, thus lessening the pulling tension during cable pulling process. This is especially important in long duct cable pulls with many turns.

Duct lubricant spillage should be cleaned up as soon as possible to prevent accident since it is very slippery. Manufactures’ recommended procedure for cleaning lubricant provides good instruction on how to do the cleaning.

How Great Of Fiber Optic Cables

Fiber optic cables are used frequently for today’s telecommunication network because of their high bandwidth, high reliability and relatively low cost. For a layman, fiber optical cable or FOCs as they are often called, is a plastic or glass fiber which permits the transmission of communications over large distances and at higher rates. They present wire almost superfluous, because they pass the same, but there are a lot of loss. These cables are unique because they are not affected by electromagnetic interference. Use these cables in performing image used in the fiber.

Each cable can not beyond the permissible limit. Fiber optic cable is very safe and more reliable than the traditional copper wire. Most of these cable to work in high-pressure environments. A fiber optic cable assembly includes a tube, a track and fasteners in addition to the conventional fiber bundles. 

The cable tubes have both front and rear surfaces to it. These cables operate with the help of photons. These photos are transmitted to a second quantum dot which is placed between mirrors. These mirrors absorb the photons and bounce them back to the quantum dot until it absorbs it.

The fiber optic cables are used for carrying different services pertaining to data, voice, cable TV, and video. The fiber optic cables keeps the electronic equipments far away from environment that are subjected to high temperature, stem, dust, smoke and so on. The unique feature of these fiber optic cable is that stainless steel lens and fiber cables can be easily replaced without any further calibration.

For the installation of fiber optic cables, fiber optic cable blowers are designed. The unique feature of these fiber optic is that they carry information in the form of light. These cables are very useful in transporting both audio and video signals over short and long distances. If a fiber optic cable is broken, another cable has to be fitted in between the connectors rather than soldering or twisting them. Fiber optic technologies have found its place in many applications. They are widely used in telecommunications, CCTV security places, and local area networks and so on.

Glass fibers are made use of for fiber optic cabling. They hardly provide any change in the signals they carry over long distances. Engineers found that by adding some additional chemicals into the existing silica, they can change the properties of the glass used for the cable (glass fiber cable). Althouth, both glass and plastic can be used in the manufacture of cable, glass is the preferred one used in the manufacture of cable, used for long distance transmission communication. The purpose of glasses in total internal reflection transmission.

A fiber optic cable consists of a core which is made of glass silica. Through this core, the light is guided. The core is covered with a material whose refractive index is slightly lower than that of the core. Two optical fibers are connected via mechanical splicing or fusion splicing. This process involves lots of skills as microscopic precision is required to align them.

Regardless of the application used in optical fiber, they will stay here. Their unique features and capabilities, to ensure that they will continue to spread widely used in communications industry for many years.