How Much Do You Know About the Fiber Optic Cable?

What is fiber optic cable?

A fiber optic cable is a network cable that contains strands of glass fibers inside an insulated casing. These fiber optic cables are designed for long distance and very high bandwidth network communications. The optical fiber elements are typically individually coated with plastic layers and contained in a protective tube suitable for the environment where the cable will be deployed. Different types of cable are used for different applications, for example long distance telecommunication, or providing a high speed data connection between different parts of a building.

Fiber optic cables carry communication signals using pulses of light. While expensive, these cables are increasingly being used instead of traditional copper cables, because fiber offers more capacity and is less susceptible to electrical interference. So called Fiber To The Home (FTTH) installations are becoming more common as a way to bring ultra high speed Internet service to residences.

What are the color codes for fiber optic cable?

The fibers in optical fiber cables are numbered according to their color code, which simplifies connecting hardware installation and connector termination as well as further administration and testing of the cabling system.

fiber optic color code

The fibers are numbered in accordance with the individual standard color code given in figure 1. 250- and 900-micron buffer coatings are subject to color-coding. In modular design multifiber cables, the same color coding is applied with respect to modules.

In loose tube cables, with over 12 fibers in one tube, fibers can be combined to form a single unit fixed by colored threads.

In some cases to facilitate pair grouping the fibers are painted the same colors with collar marks every 2-3 cm (0.8 – 1.2 in) on the second fiber of the pair.

Colored outer jackets or print may be used on Premises Distribution Cable, Premises Interconnect Cable or Interconnect Cord, or Premises Breakout Cable to identify the classification and fiber sizes of the fiber.

When colored jackets are used to identify the type of fiber in cable containing only one fiber type, the colors shall be as indicated in Table 1. Other colors may be used providing that the print on the outer jacket identifies fiber classifications in accordance with subclause 4.3.3. Such colors should be as agreed upon between manufacturer and user.

Unless otherwise specified, the outer jacket of premises cable containing more than one fiber type shall use a printed legend to identify the quantities and types of fibers within the cable. Table 3 shows the preferred nomenclature for the various fiber types, for example “12 Fiber 8 x 50/125, 4 x 62.5/125.”

When the print on the outer jacket of premises cable is used to identify the types and classifications of the fiber, the nomenclature of Table 3 is preferred for the various fiber types. Distinctive print characters for other fiber types may be considered for addition to Table 1 at some future date.

fiber optic cable color code

Notes:

1. Natural jackets with colored tracers may be used instead of solid-color jackets.

2. Because of the limited number of applications for these fibers, print nomenclature are to be agreed upon between manufacturer and end-user.

3. Other colors may be used providing that the print on the outer jacket identifies fiber classifications.

4. For some premises cable functional types (e.g, plenum cables), colored jacketing material may not be available. Distinctive jacket colors for other fiber types may be considered for addition at some future date.

How does a fiber optic cable work?

To understand how a fiber optic cable works, imagine an immensely long drinking straw or flexible plastic pipe. For example, imagine a pipe that is several miles long. Now imagine that the inside surface of the pipe has been coated with a perfect mirror. Now imagine that you are looking into one end of the pipe. Several miles away at the other end a friend turns on a flashlight and shines it into the pipe. Because the interior of the pipe is a perfect mirror, the flashlight’s light will reflect off the sides of the pipe (even though the pipe may curve and twist) and you will see it at the other end. If your friends were to turn the flashlight on and off in a morse code fashion, your friend could communicate with you through the pipe. That is the essence of a fiber optic cable.

Transmitter

A transmitter is a device found at the beginning of a fiber optic cable network. The transmitter takes information and turns it into a pulsing light wave that can be sent along a fiber optic cable. A lens is then used to send the light into a fiber optic cable. The light will travel along the fiber optic cables more quickly and with less signal degradation than occurs when sending data along traditional coper wires.

Fiber Optic Cable

The core of a fiber optic cable is made of a very clear glass tube that transmits light. This glass core is surrounded by a coating called cladding. Light will travel down the fiber optic tube in a straight line. Unfortunately, not all fiber optical cables can be laid along a straight path, so the cladding surrounding the cable is mirrored. The light bounces off of the mirrors on the cladding and is directed back into the fiber optic core to continue its journey along the cable.

Optical Regenerator

Sometimes a light signal must travel through a fiber optic cable over a very long distance. Although signal degradation is minimal in a fiber optic cable, some degradation does occur. When a cable covers a long distance, optical regenerators are placed at certain intervals along the cable. Optical regenerators are fibers that have been treated with a laser. The molecules in the fiber allow the signal traveling through the fiber optic cable to take on laser properties themselves, which strengthens the light signal. Optical regenerators essentially strengthen the light signal that is traveling through a fiber optic cable.

Optical Receiver

At the end of the fiber otic network there is an optical receiver. This receiver is essentially performs the opposite function of the transmitter found at the beginning of the system. Optical receivers receive the light signal from the fiber optic cable and turn it back into information that a computer or television know how to understand and use. It then sends the decoded signal to the computer or television.

Types of loose tube fiber optic cables

FiberStore have many types of loose tube fiber optic cables, such as All -Dielectric Loose Tube Cables, Gel-Filled Loose Tube Cables, Double-Jacket Loose Tube Cables, Central Loose Tube Cables.

The Application of 10G PON Technology

With the major carriers “Broadband speed”, “Light of Copper” project extensively, The future will be a multimedia broadband services, video on demand, interactive games as the main feature, high-bandwidth, integrated operators will be judged promoted by the merits of the standard broadband products.

Under the broadband Fiber Optic Products in the trend, PON technology has become the world’s attention to various telecom operators hot technology is one of the operators to implement “broadband speed”, “Light of Copper” engineering technology base. Wheter EPON, or GPON, which provides only for the uplink and downlink bandwidth of 1G or 2G, but with the current interactive network TV (IPTV), high definition television (HDTV), online games, video services and other large flow, a large broadband business development and popularization of the per-user bandwidth demand is expected to grow every three years, a trend of increasing magnitude, from the future operator of long-term trends, per-user bandwidth demand will be 50-100 Mbit/s between. This way, EPON and GPON are unable to meet the future needs of the development of broadband services, the existing PON port bandwidth, there will be a bottleneck. Therefore, ITU-T, FSAN, IEEE and other major standards organizations begin the next generation of PON technology research.

Similar to 1G PON Technology, 10G PON and 10G EPON technology is still divided into two camps 10G GPON. In IEEE 802.3av 10G EPON standards, maximizing follows the usual IEEE 802.3ah content, with good upward compatibility.

10G PON technical analysis

Recalling the history of PON technology can be found in each of the PON technology from birth to the end of the day have to go through large-scale commercial development of technical standards, the relevant chip and optical module development, test and production, the creation of experimental and commercial bureau 4 stages of deployment, which lasted five years or so, each one of which will go through several stages of development of the argument.

Standardization Advances

Standards are mature is the precondition of judging whether a technology have lead to condition. At this stage, including IEEE, ITU-T, FSAN and number of ongoing international standardization organizations 10G EPON and 10G GPON standards development work of two technologies. Overall, the 10G EPON technology start time earlier than 10G GPON, therefore, the current standardization process of 10G EPON slightly faster than 10G GPON.

a. 10G EPON

Technologies with 1G EPON, 10G EPON standards are mainly led by the IEEE to complete. IEEE organization at September 12, 2009 released the 10G EPON international standards 802.3av, this standard focuses on the physical layer 10G EPON technology research, followed the tradition of 1G EPON MPCP protocol, the 1G EPON downlink bandwidth increases to 10G at the same time, to ensure that the operator of the original investment is not compromised and 10G EPON smooth upgrade, IEEE 802.3av standard defines and 1G EPON ONU coexist in the same ODN network of 10G EPON ONU standard parameters.

Further, in IEEE 802.3av standard, the physical layer defines two parameters: one asymmetric model, which 10G rate downlink and 1G rate uplink; other is symmetrical pattern, i.e. uplink rate and downlink rate are both 10G. Asymmetric mode can be considered as a transitional form symmetrical patterns, in the early less demand for upstream bandwidth and cost sensitive applications, you can use an asymmetric form. With the development of business and technology progress, will be gradually transition to a symmetrical mode.

b. 10G GPON

According to ITU-T Study plans, NGPON will experience two standard phases: the first phase is the coexistence with GPON, GPON ODN heavy use of XG-PON, which in turn contains the uplink and downlink phase XG-PON1 asymmetric and symmetric XG-PON2 two kind of model; Second stage is completely new ODN’s NGA2. High concern Wavelength Division Multiplexing – Passive Optical Network (WDM-PON) technology areas belong to the second stage, it was adopted in a fiber access network using multiple wavelengths to achieve the expansion, but the burst mode CWDM, colorless ONU transceivers, tunable WDM devices and some difficult technology can not break, WDM-PON is still at the proof stage.

In the end of September 2009 meeting of the ITU-T SG 15 plenary session, Q2 Working Group officially launched the NG-PON standard text in the first stage, that overall demand for next-generation PON systems (G.987.1) and Physical Layer Specifications (G.987.2), and also developed in mid-2010, publishing transmission convergence layer (G.987.3) and management control interface (G.988) standards program.

Technical Parameters

Wheter IEEE 802.3av, or ITU-T G.987 protocol suite, all relevant technical parameters for 10G PON physical layer index, optical power budget to make a detailed definition. However, due to the two major standards organizations considered the starting point, the technical indicators are also some differences.

a. 10G EPON

There are four key points of 10G EPON technology:

1. Defines six 10G EPON optical power budget, in view of the asymmetric mode PRX10, PRX20 and PRX30 as well as for symmetric mode PR10, PR20 and PR30, these six kinds of optical power budget model is basically to meet the construction needs of the service provider network;

2. 10G EPON technology in achieving the 1G EPON conventional multi-point control protocol layer (MPCP) based on the forward compatibility, also extended the original message type, for reporting optical terminal equipment (OLT), ONU Fiber Optic Transceiver switch time to meet the 10G EPON system requirements;

3. 10G EPON uses (255, 223) Forward Error Correction (FEC) encoding method, the encoded with FEC coding for the same strain of 1G EPON, but its strong support 10G EPON coding gain can lower the sensitivity of the optical receiver;

4. 10G EPON uplink and downlink wavelength for the re-planning, downlink using 1268-1280nm wavelength, then reuse the original uplink of 1G EPON 1575-1580 nm wavelength, the wavelength in order to avoid conflicts, 10G EPON uplink only use time division multiple access (TDMA) manner.

b. 10G GPON

Has been released G.987.1 standard that defines 10G GPON system’s overall technical requirements and system architecture, clearly put forward the 10G GPON system to ensure good QoS, based on the traditional telecom services to fully support all emerging businesses and the same time, also provides dynamic Bandwidth Allocation (DBA) algorithm, energy saving, authentication and encryption related content to inherit the original 1G GPON technology; The G.987.2 is the focus of standardized 10G GPON physical layer parameters, including downlink rate, ODN power budget, splitting ratio, up and down the line wavelength range and line coding, etc., although down the line of 10G EPON same wavelength range and 10G EPON, GPON but due to the wavelength with 1G is not conflict, therefore, 10G GPON uplink and downlink are used wavelength division multiple access (WDMA) manner.

Industrial chain development

A complete industrial chain, including chip PON, optical modules and equipment three links. If to analysis PON industry chain, it need to start from the three links, analysis of every link current development status and future development trend.

Overall, 10G EPON and 10G GPON is currently not reach the requirements of large-scale commercial applications, although some equipment manufacturers have recently introduced a 10G EPON or 10G GPON products, and with operators, the creation of some experimental inning, but still in the laboratory testing phase, is still some distance away from the large-scale commercial.

Conclusion

10G PON technology to meet future access networks, “large-capacity, fewer offices,” the direction of development, while improving access speed, supports larger branching ratio, covering more users. Therefore, 10G PON technology will become the future telecom operators to achieve “broadband speed”, “Light of Copper” and other broadband network construction hot technology for sustainable development.

To Introduce Optical Communication and Internet Technology

Technology of Terabit Optic Circuit Packet Integrated Switching System

New exchange system and integrated optic circuit packet layers will be provided to meet the large capacity, high quality, low cost and effective demand so as to adapt to the cable wireless traffic spikes in the service in the future.

A connection-oriented packet transport technology is considered to be an effective way to improve the performance of packet data transmission. It is necessary, can put a layer of transport network in the direction of capital spending and minimizing operating costs to overcome the network provider’s storage and traffic increase of income. And unified control mechanism is applied to the network resource allocation, flexible wavelength circuit and packet layer according to the service characteristics. The key technologies of the system are as followings.

Technology of Terabit Optic-Circuit-Packet Integrated Switching System
  • Connection-oriented Packet Transport
  • Optic-Circuit-Packet Integrated Switch
  • Optic-Circuit-Packet Layer Integrated Control/Management
Technology of beyond-100G Optical Transmission
  • Long-reach OTN Transceiver
  • Short-reach Ethernet Transceiver

Technology of Terabit Optic-Circuit-Packet Integrated Switching System

Technology of terabit optic circuit packet integrated switching system

Smart IDC Network Control Technology for Cloud Service

Along with the rapid spreads and changes of cloud services and the technologic growth of the components in the IDC, the IDC networks are demanding following changes.

Cloud optimized: The virtualization rate of the server is rising up to 10:1-100:1 and storage virtualization is also possible recently. So IDC is requiring the cloud-optimized virtualization to the network side which are connecting the virtualized cloud resources.

Flattened: There are network control needs to reduce the delay latency of virtualized server-to-server communications which is occuping up to 70%, to rise the utilization rate the link resources of L2 IDC networks of Tree-shape multi-layer hierarchical architecture with STP.

Auto-Managed: There are demands of integrated management of network and cloud resources between IDC and create/delete/VM migration to ensure seamless services in the cloud.

Therefore, our research target to develop the Smart IDC fiber optic communication to solve the current problems of IDC network with the 3 IDC network control technologies of the Cloud-Optimized Virtual Network Control technology, the Flattened IDC Network Control Technology and Auto-managed IDC network control technology.

High Speed Optical Transmission Technology

The rapid progress in optical transmission technology has been supporting the ever increasing transmission traffic. In particular, the WDM technology, it is by the end of last century, played a main role. However, the new technology needs to use data traffic exponentially. A solution is 100Gb/s transmission. IEEE announced 40G/100G Ethernet standard and ITU-T has completed ONT standard to accommodate 100G signals in DWDM backbone network. Recently, the 100Gb/s transmission technology has become the commercial deployment, in addition to the existing 10Gb/s and 40Gb/s. Already technologies beyond 100G or 400G are started being discussed. With a long-term perspective, it is a disruptive technology, SDM (space division multiplexing) technology is seriously explored to harness the traffic in economic and energy efficient way.

High Speed Optical Transmission Technology

Next Generation WDM-PON Technology

The WDM-PON is promising technology to provide broadband access offering optic-wireless converged next generation multi-application service with the highest quality.

Advantages of the WDM-PON

* Using multiple wavelength on a single fiber, each of which carries a transmission bandwidth up to 10Gb/s at maximum; Therefore, the WDM-PON can reduce the optical access infrastructure;

* Suitable for long-reach application and possible to achieve OPEX reduction;

* Provide co-existence with legacy TDM-PON (EPON system, and GPON) systems and pay as you grow upgradability;

* Unique advantages of so-called protocol transparency, which means that it requires no specific transmission protocol, and the physical layer security, in addition to scalability in the increase of the bandwidth and guarantee of the quality of service based on bandwidth abundance.

Synchronous Optical Networking Introduction

Synchronous Optical Networking is usually called SONET for short. The SONET standards were coded in the mid-1980s to consider benefit of low-cost fiber optic transmission. It defines a hierarchy of data rates, formats for framing and multiplexing the payload data, as well as optical signal specifications (wavelength and dispersion), allowing multi-vendor interoperability.

SONET may also be referred to as “T-1 on steroids”. Can you explain that? As you may know, the digital hierarchy (DS-0, DS-1, DS-2, DS-3 and much more) was created to provide cost-effective multiplexed transport for voice and data traffic from one location inside a network to a separate.

SONET and SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) are two equivalent multiplexing protocols for transferring multiple digital bit streams using lasers or LEDs (light-emitting diodes) over the same optical fiber. They were made to replace PDH (Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy) system to get rid of the synchronization issues that PDH Multiplexer had. SONET is synchronous, which means that each connection achieves a continuing bit rate and delay. For example, SDH or SONET might be utilized to allow several Internet Service Providers to talk about exactly the same optical fiber, without being affected by each others traffic load, and without having to be able to temporarily borrow released capacity from one another. SONET and SDH are considered to become physical layer protocols since they offer permanent connections and do not involve packet mode communication. Only certain integer multiples of 64kbits/s are possible bit rates.

SONET is really TDM(time division multiplexing) based and this causes it to be readily supported fixed-rate services such as telephony. Its synchronous nature is designed to accept traffic at fixed multiples of the basic rate (64kbit/s), without requiring variable stuff bits or complex rate adaptation.

The SONET data transmission format is based on a 125us frame composed of 810 octets, of which 36 are overhead and 774 are payload data. The fundamental SONET signal, whose electrical and optical versions are referred to as STS-1 and OC-1, respectively, is thus a 51.84Mb/s data streams that readily accommodate TDM channels in multiples of 8 kb/s.

It is important in fiber optic network that SONET can be used to encapsulate PDH and other earlier digital transmission standards. It is also used directly to support either an ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) or packet over SONET/SDH (POS) networking. So SONET/SDH is actually a generic all-purpose transport container for moving both voice and knowledge traffic. They in themselves aren’t communications protocols.

SONET brings by using it a subset of benefits that make it differentiate themselves from competitive technologies. These include mid-span meet, improved operations, administration, maintenance, and provisioning (OAM&P), support for multipoint circuit configurations, non-intrusive facility monitoring, and the capability to deploy a variety of new releases.

Improved OAM&P is among the greatest contributions that SONET brings to the networking field. Element and network monitoring, management, and maintenance has always been something of the catch-as-catch-can effort due to the complexity and diversity of elements inside a typical service provider’s network. SONET overhead includes error-checking ability, bytes for network survivability, and a diverse set of clearly defined management messages.

Google Fiber is Aiming to Breakout the U.S Telecommunication Duopoly Market

Google Fiber is Aiming to Breakout the U.S Telecommunication Duopoly Market FiberStore News, According to the foreign media reports, since its inception, Google Fiberis basically regarded as an experiment in the industry, aiming to highlight the poor performance of the network service providers to promote high-speed broadband services, which is also test platform of next generation of advertising and video technology. Google has been working to correct this stereotypes of people, and repeatedly stressed that it is their serious business to carry out, even if there are indications that they would never in a nationwide promotion of Google Fiber (only a handful of cities deployment)

Media reports fully proved Google is by trying to get people to think more seriously about Google’s fiber optic network project to get it regarded as a major broadband company, although not always the case. Technology News clearly states: This network was initially seen as what the Internet giant used to test its news services and advertising model as an experiment network. Others also would like to know if Google network is just is a mean to promote the existing cable TV and phone companies to provide faster Internet service. Obviously, it was agreed that Google as a rich and powerful technology giant is affordable with this project and simply credited the cost as research and development expenditures.
The reason of Google fiber networks impress on peoples in this way is because that is the truth. This makes Google recently announced the entry into Austin and Prove does not really change that. Google Fiber is an amazing little experiment, although it may ultimately have a huge impact, it is till a long time for it to get rid of “the interesting experiment” (in issues on the U.S market capacity background and connectively)
It is not important that how we call it. Google Fiber MiloMeldin (formerly known as @Home) participate in the association meeting on FTTH in North America this week, and reiterated Google fiber network is a serious money-making initiatives. During the meeting, other than repeatedly requesting for subsidies, deregulation or complaining the poor service (just like the attitude of telecommunication industry’s mobile operators towards the large carries), Google in turns insisted that the earnings of working with the local government is rather abundance.
To be specifically, Google requires Kansas City as the assigned inspector for the Google Fiber project construction to enable speedy completion of the city’s periodic inspection, which will further saves the time and money that Google invest I the construction phase. This company also requires deploy fiber in other cities’ piping, and minimizing the unnecessary street excavation projects. The company has cooperated with the public utility companies to get the supported base station location for connections of the new fiber optic network.
Despite all these sound very good, but as of now, Google has not disclosed any convincing financial data, and Google Fiber has not yet been deployed on a large scale in families except a few part families. Although it is welcomed that Google Fiber intended to break the duopoly U.S telecommunication market, it is still a long way to go if it let people to see it as a real player in the market and a truly disruptive market forces.