Planar Lightwave Circuit (PLC) Based Optic Power Splitter

In a power-splitting PON, an optical power splitter is the passive device in the outside plant that physically connects to the CO with a feeder fiber. It also connects to a number of ONUs via a series of distribution fibers. In the past few years, significant improvements in reliability, cost per port, insertion loss, and splitting-ratio nonuniformity, have been demonstrated with planar lightwave circuit (PLC)-based splitters. Central to the splitter is a PLC chip comprising of optical waveguides fabricated on a planar substrate, typically made of silicon or quartz, to form a cascade of Y-branches. For a 1 × splitter, one side of the PLC chip is aligned to a fiber whereas the opposite side is aligned to an array of PON is typically N = 16 and N = 325, but with an increasing demand of up to N = 64, thereby making the alignment of the fiber array to the PLC chip more challenging. Compared to fused biconical-taper-based splitters, PLC technology allows for chip-size devices with the potential of integrating multiple functions, e.g. WDM coupler, onto a single clip. It also enables a more uniform loss over a wide operating range of wavelengths from 1250 nm to 1625 nm, and operaton of a wide range of temeratures from -40℃ to + 80℃. Figure 3.2 illustrates the measured insertion losses from samples of 1×32 optical splitter approved by AT&T Labs for use in the Project Lightspeed FTTH trial, showing uniform loss over a wide wavelength range.

Aside from uniform loss, the insertion loss of PLC splitters is another important parameter in network implementations that will influence system performance and the overall coast per drop. Lower insertion loss PLC slitters will extend the reach and number of customers that can be accommodated within the same PON, yielding higher revenue per PON for service providers. Aside of the theoretical splitting loss attributed to the division of optical power at the input port equally into N output ports, and given by the fromula:

Theoretical splitting loss (dB) = 10 × log10(1/N)

A PLC splitter suffers from excess insertion loss from fiber array alignment to the PLC chip, fiber array uniformity caused by pitch and depth inaccuracies in the v-grooves of fiber array block that holds the fiber array, splitting ratio uniformity caused by imperfections in the PLC chip due to manufacturing, inherent chip material loss, and inherent chip material loss, and connector loss. The targeted areas for improvement of insertion loss in PLC splitters have been in reducing connector losses, and improving fiber array and splitting ration-nonuniformity. The connector loss can be improved from 0.5 dB trough using high quality ferrules and an excellent polishing method. With advances in manufacturing process of the fiber array block and PLC chip, insertion losses from fiber array nonuniformity and splitting-ratio nouniformity can be reduced from 0.7 dB to 0.4 dB and 1.8 dB to 1.0 dB, respectively. Collectively, the excess insertion losses of PLC splitters are currently 1 – 1.5 dB above the ideal theoretical splitting loss with a nonuniformity within 2 dB over the specified range of operating wavelengths from 1250 nm to 1625 nm.

Fiber optical splitter is used to split the fiber optic light into several parts at a certain ratio . The fiber optic splitter is an important passive component used in PON FTTX networks. There are mainly two kinds of passive FTTH optical splitters: one is the traditional fused type splitter as known as FBT coupler or FBT WDM optical splitter, which features competitive price; the other is the PLC splitter based on the PLC (Planar Lightwave Circuit) technology, which has a compact size and suits for density applications. The common PLC Splitters configurations are 1×4, 1×8, 1×16, 1×32, 1×64 and 1×128, but 2×4, 2×8, 2×16, 2×32 configurations are also available.  Fiberstore singlemode& multimode FBT optical splitter comes in a wide range of split ratios with single/double/three windows. The main packages include box type and stainless tube type. The former is usually used with 2mm or 3mm outer diameter cable, while the latter is usually used with 0.9mm outer diameter cable. Our optical splitter can be terminated with your choice of connectors or installed in rack mount modules. Please contact us for the special customized needs.

Buy Bare Fiber PLC Splitter From FiberStore

Bare fiber PLC splitter is an optical power management device which is widely used in PON networks to realize optical signal power splitting. The common configurations are 1×4, 1×8, 1×16, 1×32 and 1×64 PLC Splitters, but 2×4, 2×8, 2×16, 2×32 configurations are also available. Bare Fiber PLC Splitter comes with unterminated ends so that it can be fused by customers themselves.

Planar Lightwave Circuit (PLC) splitter, PLC splitters are used to distribute or combine optical signals. It is based on planar lightwave circuit technology and provides a low cost light distribution solution with small form factor and high reliability. 1xN PLC splitters are precision aligning process to divide a single optical input(s) into multiple optical outputs uniformly,while 2xN PLC splitters divide a dual optical input(s) into multiple optical outputs. FiberStore PLC splitters offer superior optical performance, high stability and high reliability to meet various application requirements.

The bare PLC splitters are used for small spaces that can be easily placed in a formal joint boxes and splice closure. In order to facilitate welding, it does not need specially designed for space reserved.

FiberStore provides a various of 1xN and 2xN PLC bare splitters, including 1×2, 1×4, 1×8, 1×16,1×32, 1×64 bare fiber type PLC splitter and 2×2, 2×4, 2×8, 2×16, 2×32 bare fiber type PLC splitters.

Bare Fiber Type PLC Splitter Features
  • Good uniformity and low insertion loss
  • Low Polarization Dependent Loss
  • Excellent Mechanical
  • Stability Telecordia GR-1221 and GR-1209
  • Components through TLC-Certified,Conform to YD1117-2001
  • Operating environment: -40ºC to +85ºC
  • High Polarization Extinction Ratio & Excellent Uniformity
  • Fiber input: 0.9um loose tube or 250um bare fiber for choice
  • Fiber output: 250um bare fiber (It is benefit for splicing)
Bare Fiber Type PLC Splitter Applications
  • Fiber to the point (FTTX)
  • Fiber to the home (FTTH)
  • Passive optical networks(PON, GEPON)
  • Local area networks (LAN)
  • Cable television (CATV)
  • Test equipment
Mechanical Drawing

Kind note: This price is without connector

V.S FBT Coupler, the advantages of PLC are as follows
  • The loss to different wavelength transmission is not sensitive, so it can meet the transmission requirements of different wavelength
  • High spectral uniformity, can splitter the signals on average
  • Compact structure, small volume
  • The cost advantage is very obvious on many splitter channels
Order Information

FiberStore provides a whole series of 1xN and 2xN splitters that are tailored for specific applications:

a.1×2, 1×4, 1×8, 1×16,1×32, 1×64, 2×2, 2×4, 2×8, 2×16, 2×32 Versions of splitters are available.

b. SC/UPC, FC/UPC, LC/UPC, SC/APC, FC/APC, LC/APC connectors or no connectors can be selected as you like

c. 250um bare fiber or 0.9 mm loose tube can be choose as input fiber type, 250um bare fiber for output fiber type.

d. The length of pigtail can be also customized; usually we will provide you 1.5m, welcome to contact us for more details.

Sample Pictures


FiberStore also supply other fiber optic products, such as mpo connectorfiber attenuators, Ethernet to fibre optic converter and more. If you would like to purchase our plc splitters, please contact us.

How To Choose Fiber Optic Attenuators

Fiber attenuators are used in fiber optic communications to reduce optical fiber power at a certain level. Why do we need fiber attenuators? Bigger is better, right? Or so most people believe. Beginners in fiber optic technology are often confued with why optical attenuators are necessary to reduce light intensity. Aren’t we using amplifiers to increase the signal power level?

The truth is that too much light can overload a fiber optic receiver. Optical fiber attenuators are needed when a transmitter delivers too much light, such as when a transmitter is very close to the receiver.

How Does a Fiber Attenuator Work?

Optical Attenuators usually works by absorbing the light, such as a neutral density thin file filter. Or by scattering the light such as an air gap. They should not reflect the light since that could cause unwanted back reflection in the fiber system.

Another type of attenuator utilizes a length of high-loss optical fiber, that operates upon its input optical signal power level in such a way that its output signal power level is less than the input level. The power reduction are done by such means as absorption, reflection, diffusion, scattering, deflection, diffraction, and dispersion, etc.

What is the Most Important Feature Should a Fiber Attenuator Have?

The most important spec of an attenuator is its attenuation versus wavelength curve. Optical attenuators should have the same effect on all wavelengths used in the fiber system or at least as flat as possible. For example, a 3dB attenuator at 1500nm should also reduce the intensity of light at 1550nm by 3dB or as close as possible, this is especially true in a WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing) system.

Different Types of Attenuators

There are two functional types of fiber attenuators: plug style (including bulkhead) and in-line. A plug style attenuator is employed as a male-female connector where attenuation occurs inside the device, that is, on the light path from one ferrule to another. The types of fiber optic attenuators are based on the types of connectors and attenuation level. FiberStore supply a lot of fiber optic attenuators, like FC, SC/APC, ST, PC, LC, UPC, MU, FC/APC, SC, LC/APC, fixed value plug type fiber attenuators with different attenuation level, from 1dB to 30dB. An in-line attenuator is connected to a transmission fiber by splicing its two pigtails.

The principle of operation of attenuators are markedly different because they use various phenomena to decrease the power of the propagating light. The simplest means is to bend a fiber. Coil a patch cable several times around a pencil while measuring the attenuation with a power meter, then tape this coil. Then you got a primitive but working attenuator. Most fiber attenuators have fixed values that are specified in decibels (dB). They are called fiber optic fixed attenuator. For example, a -3dB attenuator should reduce intensity of the output by 3dB.

Manufacturers use various types of light-absorbing material to achieve well-controlled and stable attenuation. For example, a fiber doped with a transition metal that absorbs light in a predictable way and disperses absorbed energy as a heat. Variable fiber optic attenuators also are available, but they usually are precision instruments used in making measurements.

As the very best China fiber optic products supplier, FiberStore Inc. provides lots of this sort of products which are reliable and economical. If you may well not find it on our website, you can call us to customize it to suit your needs. We also supply PLC splitter, fiber transceiver, optical cable, if you would like to know how much does fiber optic cable cost, please visit our website.

The Survival of The Fittest of The Fiber Optic Connector

Looking at the current market can be described as quite a mixed bag of fiber optic connectors. On the premise of FTTH is popular, many companies has seen a market outlook. Have been started scrambling to grab market share. The market is very confusing, profits plummeted. Many enterprises in a dilemma. While operators central purchasing so many manufacturers were mixed, happy is the amount up, the worry is that the prices down, the market will be more difficult to do. At the cost of many manufacturers to reduce prices to squeeze into the operator’s Central Purchasing.

How to choose a qualified fiber optic connector? Have to identify its selection, structure and production.

A. Selection can be broadly divided into: Plastic V groove, rubber V groove, the metal V groove (copper or aluminum), the V grooves of quartz glass, pore and ceramic.

1. Plastic V groove

Plastic V-groove is the most common manufacturers to adopt a selection, which is mainly because of the ease of processing, low cost. Subject to cost constraints, most manufacturers the production of plastic V-groove many are not using the new PEI fiber optic connector production materials, or even replaced by other inferior materials, in order to have gained a place the operators reserve price bid. Did not pay too much attention from the injection molding equipment, especially some small businesses and private small workshops, ordinary injection molding machine to produce. Short-term performance of the connector is not much of a problem, a long time under the influence of accident by environmental factors will be frequent.

Furthermore plastic V-groove on machining accuracy inadequate by the material, injection molding equipment and the use of environmental impact prone to deformation of the warped; wearing fiber by fiber nearly 90 ° cutting surface, easy blowing debris into the internal contacts, causing the inside of the connector pollution caused by successive failed.

2. Rubber V groove

This material is not worth mentioning, rarely appear on the market. Simply can not afford because of its environmental factors.

3. The metal V groove

The material used on the market mainly copper and aluminum. Both can not escape the fate of being oxidized, and the processing of varying accuracy, easy to produce dander damage fiber. Insufficient strength will deform. Especially aluminum V groove, after repeated open the internal compression deformation space becomes large, the gripping force becomes small, the impact on the fiber optic splice performance.

4. The V grooves of quartz glass

This material V-groove is the use of PLC Splitter technology, industry recognized and recommended for use on site assembly type fiber optic connector internal connecting way. The main advantage of its very high machining accuracy, can be controlled in 1μ between. Fiber breakpoint between successive favorable attenuation in the hot melt comparable. And to wear fiber smooth and difficult to produce debris. No deformation, resistance to environmental performance is extremely strong.

5. The Pores, Ceramic type

With respect to the error between the fiber diameter and the diameter of the pores, but it is a defect. Diameter optical fibers and optical fiber itself thers is error, combined with the pore itself there is error. Accumulated error is at least a 3-micron industry report 1μ, contact the loss of fiber contacts between the dislocation will be more than 0.2 dB. Nor due to contact between the fixed, the earthquake became its fatal flaw.

Field fiber optic connector is not PLC splitter. Optical Splitter by the factory processing, the handing of its internal contacts are in the operating microscope to ensure that its internal pollution. And assembled on site fiber optic patch cords, need to respond to the very harsh environment of the construction site. In this context, bear the brunt of the factory production environment.

You may understand the PM2.5 particles of dust in the air everywhere. Superior production environment is a necessary prerequisite for the production of connectors, on this basis, also need refinement of each production. So as to ensure the production of fiber optic connectors have been qualified. This is why some manufacturers out connector at room temperature, a passing rate of about 90%, and some manufacturers can do more than 99% of the one-time pass rate.

I believe that do the points above, but the factors used in the actual environmental conditions is very important. Do not just look at the room temperature performance, not just blindly concerned about the price. A qualified and superior fiber optic connectors must be able to withstand a long time in the harsh environment performance online, do not be confused by the immediate moment.

It is worth mentioning here have been some manufacturers have begun to study the next generation of fiber optic connected to the cold continued transmission mode, so that the optical and the optical transmission between points. Such technology would ban docking between the fiber break dependence on fiber matching cream. And does not require professional support construction tools, can achieve real store of, so that users can do-it-yourself operation, like changing a light bulb so simple and quick.